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6.6. Upgrade dari Satu Distribusi Stable ke Berikutnya

Salah satu fitur yang paling terkenal adalah kemampuannya untuk mengupgrade sistem terinstall dari satu rilis stable ke rilis berikutnya: dist-upgrade — istilah yang mashur — besar kontribusinya terhadap reputasi rroyek. Dengan sedikit tindakan pencegahan, mengupgrade sebuah komputer dapat membutuhkan waktu beberapa menit, atau belasan menit, tergantung kecepatan unduh dari repositori paket.

6.6.1. Prosedur Direkomendasikan

Karena Debian memiliki beberapa waktu untuk evolusi antara rilis stable, Anda harus membaca catatan rilis sebelum melakukan upgrade.
In this section, we will focus on upgrading a Wheezy system to Jessie. This is a major operation on a system; as such, it is never 100% risk-free, and should not be attempted before all important data has been backed up.
Kebiasaan baik lainnya yang membuat upgrade lebih mudah (dan ringkas) adalah membereskan paket terinstall dan tersisa hanya yang diperlukan saja. Peralatan yang membantu untuk melakukan hal tersebua termasuk aptitude, deborphan dan debfoster (lihat Bagian 6.2.7, “Pelacakan Otomatis Paket Terinstall”). Misalnya, Anda dapat menggunakan perintah berikut, kemudian menggunakan mode interaktif aptitude untuk pemeriksaan ulang dan jadwal penghapusan yang rapih:
# deborphan | xargs aptitude --schedule-only remove
Now for the upgrading itself. First, you need to change the /etc/apt/sources.list file to tell APT to get its packages from Jessie instead of Wheezy. If the file only contains references to Stable rather than explicit codenames, the change isn't even required, since Stable always refers to the latest released version of Debian. In both cases, the database of available packages must be refreshed (with the apt update command or the refresh button in synaptic).
Once these new package sources are registered, you should first do a minimal upgrade with apt upgrade. By doing the upgrade in two steps, we ease the job of the package management tools and often ensure that we have the latest versions of those, which might have accumulated bugfixes and improvements required to complete the full distribution upgrade.
Once this first upgrade is done, it is time to handle the upgrade itself, either with apt full-upgrade, aptitude, or synaptic. You should carefully check the suggested actions before applying them: you might want to add suggested packages or deselect packages which are only recommended and known not to be useful. In any case, the front-end should come up with a scenario ending in a coherent and up-to-date Jessie system. Then, all you need is to do is wait while the required packages are downloaded, answer the Debconf questions and possibly those about locally modified configuration files, and sit back while APT does its magic.

6.6.2. Menangani Masalah setelah Pembaharuan

Dalam kegemasan usaha terbaik maintainer Debian, upgrade sistem utama tidak selalu selancar yang Anda inginkan. Versi terbaru perangkat lunak mungkin tidak cocok dengan versi sebelumnya (misalnya, perilaku bawaannya atau format data mereka mungkin berubah). Juga, beberapa kutu mungkin terselip oleh crack walaupun fase testing yang selalu mendahului rilis Debian.
Untuk mengantisipasi beberapa masalah ini, Anda dapat menginstall paket apt-listchanges, yang menampilkan informasi tentang kemungkinan masalah di permulaan upgrade paket. Informasi ini dikompilasi oleh maintainer paket Debian dan dimasukkan dalam berkas /usr/share/doc/paket/NEWS.Debian untuk memberi manfaat bagi pengguna. Membaca berkas perubahan ini (melalui apt-listchanges) akan membantu Anda menghindari kejutan buruk.
You might sometimes find that the new version of a software doesn't work at all. This generally happens if the application isn't particularly popular and hasn't been tested enough; a last-minute update can also introduce regressions which are only found after the stable release. In both cases, the first thing to do is to have a look at the bug tracking system at https://bugs.debian.org/package, and check whether the problem has already been reported. If it hasn't, you should report it yourself with reportbug. If it is already known, the bug report and the associated messages are usually an excellent source of information related to the bug:
  • terkadang sebuah patch telah ada, dan tersedia pada laporan kutu; Anda dapat mengompilasi ulang versi tetap paket yang rusak di lokal (lihat Bagian 15.1, “Membangun ulang sebuah Paket dari Source-nya”);
  • dalam kasus lain, pengguna mungkin menemukan solusi masalah tersebut dan dibagi dalam penjelasannya dalam balasan ke laporan tersebut;
  • dan dalam kasus lain, paket perbaikkan mungkin telah dipersiapkan dan tersedia secara publik oleh maintainer.
Depending on the severity of the bug, a new version of the package may be prepared specifically for a new revision of the stable release. When this happens, the fixed package is made available in the proposed-updates section of the Debian mirrors (see Bagian 6.1.2.3, “Pengajuan Pembaharuan”). The corresponding entry can then be temporarily added to the sources.list file, and updated packages can be installed with apt or aptitude.
Sometimes the fixed package isn't available in this section yet because it is pending a validation by the Stable Release Managers. You can verify if that's the case on their web page. Packages listed there aren't available yet, but at least you know that the publication process is ongoing.