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Securing Debian Manual
Anhang E - Beispielskript, um die Standard-Installation von Bind zu ändern

Dieses Skript automatisiert den Vorgang, die Standardinstallation des Name-Servers bind in der Version 8 zu ändern, so dass er nicht als Root läuft. Hinweis: Bei bind in der Version 9 in Debian ist dies standardmäßig so.[91] Diese Version ist demnach der Version 8 von bind vorzuziehen.

Dieses Skript ist hier aus historischen Gründen aufgeführt und soll zeigen, wie man diese Art von Veränderungen systemweit automatisieren kann. Das Skript wird den Benutzer und die Gruppe für den Name-Server erstellen und /etc/default/bind und /etc/init.d/bind so ändern, dass das Programm unter diesem Benutzer läuft. Benutzen Sie es äußerst vorsichtig, da es nicht eingehend getestet wurde.

Sie können die Benutzer auch von Hand erstellen und dann den Patch für das Standard-Init.d-Skript verwenden, der im Fehlerbericht #157245 enthalten ist.

       #!/bin/sh
       # Change the default Debian bind v8 configuration to have it run
       # with a non-root user and group.
       # 
       # DO NOT USER this with version 9, use debconf for configure this instead
       #
       # WARN: This script has not been tested thoroughly, please
       # verify the changes made to the INITD script
     
       # (c) 2002 Javier Fernández-Sanguino Peña
       #
       #    This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
       #    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
       #    the Free Software Foundation; either version 1, or (at your option)
       #    any later version.
       #
       #    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       #    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       #    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
       #    GNU General Public License for more details.
       #
       #     Please see the file `COPYING' for the complete copyright notice.
       #
     
       restore() {
       # Just in case, restore the system if the changes fail
         echo "WARN: Restoring to the previous setup since I'm unable to properly change it."
         echo "WARN: Please check the $INITDERR script."
         mv $INITD $INITDERR
         cp $INITDBAK $INITD
       }
     
     
       USER=named
       GROUP=named
       INITD=/etc/init.d/bind
       DEFAULT=/etc/default/bind
       INITDBAK=$INITD.preuserchange
       INITDERR=$INITD.changeerror
       AWKS="awk ' /\/usr\/sbin\/ndc reload/ { print \"stop; sleep 2; start;\"; noprint = 1; } /\\\\$/ { if ( noprint != 0 ) { noprint = noprint + 1;} } /^.*$/ { if ( noprint != 0 ) { noprint = noprint - 1; } else { print \$0; } } '"
     
       [ `id -u` -ne 0 ] && {
         echo "This program must be run by the root user"
         exit 1
       }
     
       RUNUSER=`ps eo user,fname |grep named |cut -f 1 -d " "`
     
       if [ "$RUNUSER" = "$USER" ] 
       then
         echo "WARN: The name server running daemon is already running as $USER"
         echo "ERR:  This script will not do any changes to your setup."
         exit 1
       fi
       if [ ! -f "$INITD" ]
       then
         echo "ERR:  This system does not have $INITD (which this script tries to change)"
         RUNNING=`ps eo fname |grep named`
         [ -z "$RUNNING" ] && \
           echo "ERR:  In fact the name server daemon is not even running (is it installed?)"
         echo "ERR:  No changes will be made to your system"
         exit 1
       fi
     
       # Check if there are options already setup 
       if [ -e "$DEFAULT" ]
       then
         if grep -q ^OPTIONS $DEFAULT; then
           echo "ERR: The $DEFAULT file already has options set."
           echo "ERR:  No changes will be made to your system"
         fi
       fi
     
       # Check if named group exists
       if [ -z "`grep $GROUP /etc/group`" ] 
       then
         echo "Creating group $GROUP:"
         addgroup $GROUP
       else
         echo "WARN: Group $GROUP already exists. Will not create it"
       fi
       # Same for the user
       if [ -z "`grep $USER /etc/passwd`" ] 
       then
         echo "Creating user $USER:"
         adduser --system --home /home/$USER \
           --no-create-home --ingroup $GROUP \
           --disabled-password --disabled-login $USER
       else
         echo "WARN: The user $USER already exists. Will not create it"
       fi
     
       # Change the init.d script
     
       # First make a backup (check that there is not already
       # one there first)
       if [ ! -f $INITDBAK ] 
       then
         cp $INITD $INITDBAK
       fi
     
       # Then use it to change it
       cat $INITDBAK |
       eval $AWKS > $INITD
     
       # Now put the options in the /etc/default/bind file:
       cat >>$DEFAULT <<EOF
     # Make bind run with the user we defined
     OPTIONS="-u $USER -g $GROUP"
     EOF
     
       echo "WARN: The script $INITD has been changed, trying to test the changes."
       echo "Restarting the named daemon (check for errors here)."
     
       $INITD restart
       if [ $? -ne 0 ] 
       then
         echo "ERR:  Failed to restart the daemon."
         restore
         exit 1
       fi
     
       RUNNING=`ps eo fname |grep named`
       if [ -z "$RUNNING" ] 
       then
         echo "ERR:  Named is not running, probably due to a problem with the changes."
         restore
         exit 1
       fi
     
       # Check if it's running as expected
       RUNUSER=`ps eo user,fname |grep named |cut -f 1 -d " "`
     
       if [ "$RUNUSER" = "$USER" ] 
       then
         echo "All has gone well, named seems to be running now as $USER."
       else
         echo "ERR:  The script failed to automatically change the system."
         echo "ERR:  Named is currently running as $RUNUSER."
         restore
         exit 1
       fi
     
       exit 0

Das obige Skript wird, wenn es auf Woodys (Debian 3.0) bind (Version 8) angewendet wird, die initd-Datei verändern, nachdem der Benutzer und die Gruppe »named« erstellt wurde.


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Securing Debian Manual

Version: 3.17, Sun, 08 Apr 2012 02:48:09 +0000

Javier Fernández-Sanguino Peña jfs@debian.org
Autoren, Abschnitt 1.1