章 3. 系統安裝

內容目錄

3.1. 安裝系統有何改變?
3.1.1. 主要改變
3.1.2. 自動安裝

Debian Installer 是 Debian 的官方安裝系統。它提供了多種不同的安裝方式。您可以依據您硬體架構的不同而有種種不同的安裝方式可供選擇。

可以在 Debian 站台 上同時取得 squeeze 的安裝影像檔以及安裝指引。

安裝指引也同時會包含在 Debian 官方的 CD/DVD 集裡的第一張 CD/DVD 的:

/doc/install/manual/language/index.html

您還可以到 戡誤表 上查看 debian-installer 的一些已知問題之列表。

3.1. 安裝系統有何改變?

There has been a lot of development on the Debian Installer since its first official release with Debian GNU/Linux 3.1 (sarge) resulting in both improved hardware support and some exciting new features.

在本發行情報裡,我們只會列出在安裝程式裡的一些重大改變。如果您想知道在 lenny 之後它的一些詳盡的改變列表,請檢閱在 Debian Installer 的 新聞歷程 上有關 squeeze beta 及 RC 版發行公告。

3.1.1. 主要改變

Dropped platforms

Support for the Alpha ('alpha'), ARM ('arm') and HP PA-RISC ('hppa') architectures has been dropped from the installer. The 'arm' architecture is obsoleted by the ARM EABI ('armel') port.

Support for kFreeBSD

The installer can be used to install the kFreeBSD instead of the Linux kernel and test the technology preview. To use this feature the appropriate installation image (or CD/DVD set) has to be used.

GRUB 2 is the default bootloader

The bootloader that will be installed by default is grub-pc (GRUB 2).

Help during the installation process

The dialogs presented during the installation process now provide help information. Although not currently used in all dialogs, this feature would be increasingly used in future releases. This will improve the user experience during the installation process, especially for new users.

Installation of Recommended packages

The installation system will install all recommended packages by default throughout the process except for some specific situations in which the general setting gives undesired results.

Automatic installation of hardware-specific packages

The system will automatically select for installation hardware-specific packages when they are appropriate. This is achieved through the use of discover-pkginstall from the discover package.

Support for installation of previous releases

The installation system can be also used for the installation of previous release, such as lenny.

Improved mirror selection

The installation system provides better support for installing both squeeze as well as lenny and older releases (through the use of archive.debian.org). In addition, it will also check that the selected mirror is consistent and holds the selected release.

Changes in partitioning features

This release of the installer supports the use of the ext4 file system and it also simplifies the creation of RAID, LVM and crypto protected partitioning systems. Support for the reiserfs file system is no longer included by default, although it can be optionally loaded.

Support for loading firmware debs during installation

It is now possible to load firmware package files from the installation media in addition to removable media, allowing the creation of PXE images and CDs/DVDs with included firmware packages.

Starting with Debian 6.0, non-free firmware has been moved out of main. To install Debian on hardware that needs non-free firmware, you can either provide the firmware yourself during installation or use pre-made non-free CDs/DVDs which include the firmware. See the Getting Debian section on the Debian website for more information.

新語系

Thanks to the huge efforts of translators, Debian GNU/Linux can now be installed in 70 languages. This is seven more languages than in lenny. Most languages are available in both the text-based installation user interface and the graphical user interface, while some are only available in the graphical user interface.

Languages added in this release include:

  • Asturian, Estonian, Icelandic, Kazakh and Persian have been added to the graphical and text-based installer.

  • Kannada, Lao, Sinhala and Telugu have been added to the graphical installer.

  • Thai, previously available only in the graphical user interface, is now available also in the text-based installation user interface too.

Due to the lack of translation updates two languages were dropped in this release: Wolof and Welsh.

Improved localisation selection

The selection of localisation-related values (language, location and locale settings) is now less interdependent and more flexible. Users will be able to customize the system to their localisation needs more easily while still make it comfortable to use for users that want to select the locale most common for the country they reside in.

Additionally, the consequences of localisation choices (such as timezone, keymap and mirror selection) are now more obvious to the user.

Live system installation

The installer now supports live systems in two ways. First, an installer included on live system media can use the contents of the live system in place of the regular installation of the base system. Second, the installer may now be launched while running the live system, allowing the user to do other things with the live system during the install. Both features are built into the Debian Live images offered at http://cdimage.debian.org/.

3.1.2. 自動安裝

在之前的章節中所提到了許多的改變,其中也包含了在安裝程式裡利用事先準備好的設定檔來進行自動安裝。這意謂著,如果您手上有著用來和 lenny 安裝程式搭配使用的事先準備好的設定檔,若未經修改將難以和新的安裝程式搭配使用。

安裝指引 上已有更新了的獨立附錄,上有如何使用事先準備好的設定檔之大量資訊。