第 3 章 安装系统

目录

3.1. 安装系统有哪些新特性?
3.1.1. 主要更新
3.1.2. 自动安装

Debian 安装程序是 Debian 官方的安装系统。它提供了 Debian 操作系统的各种安装方式。您适合用何种安装方式,取决于您的计算机硬件架构。

您可以借助 Debian 网站上的安装指南找到 squeeze 的安装程序映像。

安装手册也可以在 Debian 官方 CD/DVD 的第一张盘上找到,路径是:

/doc/install/manual/language/index.html

您也可以检查勘误表,以查看 Debian 安装程序的已知问题列表。

3.1. 安装系统有哪些新特性?

自从在 Debian GNU/Linux 3.1 (sarge) 中第一次官方发布以来,Debian 安装程序有许多开发工作,在硬件支持上有显著改进,还增加了很多有趣的新功能。

在发布说明中,我们只列举安装程序的主要变更。如果您想对从 lenny 开始各项变更的详细情况有个大致的了解,请阅读 squeeze 之 beta 和 RC 版本的发布声明,它们位于 Debian 安装程序的新闻网页上。

3.1.1. 主要更新

Dropped platforms

Support for the Alpha ('alpha'), ARM ('arm') and HP PA-RISC ('hppa') architectures has been dropped from the installer. The 'arm' architecture is obsoleted by the ARM EABI ('armel') port.

Help during the installation process

The dialogs presented during the installation process now provide help information. Although not currently used in all dialogs, this feature would be increasingly used in future releases. This will improve the user experience during the installation process, especially for new users.

Installation of Recommended packages

The installation system will install all recommended packages by default throughout the process except for some specific situations in which the general setting gives undesired results.

Automatic installation of hardware-specific packages

The system will automatically select for installation hardware-specific packages when they are appropriate. This is achieved through the use of discover-pkginstall from the discover package.

Support for installation of previous releases

The installation system can be also used for the installation of previous release, such as lenny.

Improved mirror selection

The installation system provides better support for installing both squeeze as well as lenny and older releases (through the use of archive.debian.org). In addition, it will also check that the selected mirror is consistent and holds the selected release.

Changes in partitioning features

This release of the installer supports the use of the ext4 file system and it also simplifies the creation of RAID, LVM and crypto protected partitioning systems. Support for the reiserfs file system is no longer included by default, although it can be optionally loaded.

Support for loading firmware debs during installation

It is now possible to load firmware package files from the installation media in addition to removable media, allowing the creation of PXE images and CDs/DVDs with included firmware packages.

Starting with Debian 6.0, non-free firmware has been moved out of main. To install Debian on hardware that needs non-free firmware, you can either provide the firmware yourself during installation or use pre-made non-free CDs/DVDs which include the firmware. See the Getting Debian section on the Debian website for more information.

新增语言支持

Thanks to the huge efforts of translators, Debian GNU/Linux can now be installed in 70 languages. This is seven more languages than in lenny. Most languages are available in both the text-based installation user interface and the graphical user interface, while some are only available in the graphical user interface.

Languages added in this release include:

  • Asturian, Estonian, Icelandic, Kazakh and Persian have been added to the graphical and text-based installer.

  • Kannada, Lao, Sinhala and Telugu have been added to the graphical installer.

  • Thai, previously available only in the graphical user interface, is now available also in the text-based installation user interface too.

Due to the lack of translation updates two languages were dropped in this release: Wolof and Welsh.

Improved localisation selection

The selection of localisation-related values (language, location and locale settings) is now less interdependent and more flexible. Users will be able to customize the system to their localisation needs more easily while still make it comfortable to use for users that want to select the locale most common for the country they reside in.

Additionally, the consequences of localisation choices (such as timezone, keymap and mirror selection) are now more obvious to the user.

Live system installation

The installer now supports live systems in two ways. First, an installer included on live system media can use the contents of the live system in place of the regular installation of the base system. Second, the installer may now be launched while running the live system, allowing the user to do other things with the live system during the install. Both features are built into the Debian Live images offered at http://cdimage.debian.org/.

3.1.2. 自动安装

前一节中所提到的一些变更,也意味着安装程序使用预配置文件进行自动安装的调整。这意味着,如果您有能在 lenny 安装程序中正常使用的预配置文件,您不能指望它能在新安装程序中正常使用,而无需修改。

安装指南现在有一个单独附录,用来描述使用预配置文件的方法。