2.1. Hardware compatible

Debian no impone requisitos de hardware más allá de los que establecen el núcleo Linux o kFreeBSD y el conjunto de herramientas GNU. En cualquier caso, cualquier arquitectura o plataforma a la que se haya adaptado el núcleo Linux o kFreeBSD, libc, gcc, etc., y para los que exista una adaptación de Debian, puede ejecutar Debian. Por favor, diríjase a las páginas de adaptaciones en http://www.debian.org/ports/arm/ para más información sobre sistemas de arquitectura 32-bit soft-float ARM probados con Debian GNU/Linux.

En lugar de intentar describir las diferentes configuraciones de hardware compatibles con 32-bit soft-float ARM, esta sección contiene información general y referencias adicionales donde puede encontrar más información.

2.1.1. Arquitecturas compatibles

Debian GNU/Linux 8 supports ten major architectures and several variations of each architecture known as flavors.

Arquitectura Designación de Debian Subarquitectura Sabor
Basada en Intel x86 i386    
AMD64 e Intel 64 amd64    
ARM armel Intel IXP4xx ixp4xx
Marvell Kirkwood kirkwood
Marvell Orion orion5x
Versatile versatile
ARM con hardware FPU armhf multiplatform armmp
multiplatform for LPAE-capable systems armmp-lpae
64bit ARM arm64    
MIPS (big endian) mips SGI IP22 (Indy/Indigo 2) r4k-ip22
SGI IP32 (O2) r5k-ip32
MIPS Malta (32 bit) 4kc-malta
MIPS Malta (64 bit) 5kc-malta
MIPS (little endian) mipsel MIPS Malta (32 bit) 4kc-malta
MIPS Malta (64 bit) 5kc-malta
IBM/Motorola PowerPC powerpc PowerMac pmac
PReP prep
Power Systems ppc64el IBM POWER8 or newer machines  
IBM S/390 64bit s390x IPL del lector VM y DASD genérico

Debian GNU/kFreeBSD 8 es compatible con dos arquitecturas:

Arquitectura Designación de Debian
Basada en Intel x86 kfreebsd-i386
AMD64 e Intel 64 kfreebsd-amd64

Este documento cubre la instalación para la arquitectura 32-bit soft-float ARM usando el núcleo Linux. Si busca información sobre cualquiera de las otras arquitecturas compatibles con Debian consulte las páginas de las adaptaciones de Debian.

2.1.2. Three different ARM ports

The ARM architecture has evolved over time and modern ARM processors provide features which are not available in older models. Debian therefore provides three ARM ports to give the best support for a very wide range of different machines:

  • Debian/armel targets older 32-bit ARM processors without support for a hardware floating point unit (FPU),

  • Debian/armhf works only on newer 32-bit ARM processors which implement at least the ARMv7 architecture with version 3 of the ARM vector floating point specification (VFPv3). It makes use of the extended features and performance enhancements available on these models.

  • Debian/arm64 works on 64-bit ARM processors which implement at least the ARMv8 architecture.

Technically, all currently available ARM CPUs can be run in either endian mode (big or little), but in practice the vast majority use little-endian mode. All of Debian/arm64, Debian/armhf and Debian/armel support only little-endian systems.

2.1.3. Variations in ARM CPU designs and support complexity

ARM systems are much more heterogeneous than those based on the i386/amd64-based PC architecture, so the support situation can be much more complicated.

The ARM architecture is used mainly in so-called system-on-chip (SoC) designs. These SoCs are designed by many different companies with vastly varying hardware components even for the very basic functionality required to bring the system up. System firmware interfaces have been increasingly standardised over time, but especially on older hardware firmware/boot interfaces vary a great deal, so on these systems the Linux kernel has to take care of many system-specific low-level issues which would be handled by the mainboard's BIOS in the PC world.

At the beginning of the ARM support in the Linux kernel, the hardware variety resulted in the requirement of having a separate kernel for each ARM system in contrast to the one-fits-all kernel for PC systems. As this approach does not scale to a large number of different systems, work was done to allow booting with a single ARM kernel that can run on different ARM systems. Support for newer ARM systems is now implemented in a way that allows the use of such a multiplatform kernel, but for several older systems a separate specific kernel is still required. Because of this, the standard Debian distribution only supports installation on a selected number of such older ARM systems, alongside the newer systems which are supported by the ARM multiplatform kernels (called 'armmp') in Debian/armhf.

2.1.4. Platforms supported by Debian/armel

The following platforms are supported by Debian/armel; they require platform-specific kernels.

IXP4xx

The Intel IXP4xx processor series is used in commonly used network attached storage (NAS) devices like the Linksys NSLU2.

While there is kernel support for this platform in Debian 8, it is not supported by the debian-installer. It is possible to do a dist-upgrade from Debian 7 to Debian 8 for existing installations, though. Due to the small amount of RAM that systems based on the IXP4xx typically have, this requires that swap space is enabled prior to upgrading. Support for the IXP4xx platform will be dropped completely in Debian 9.

Kirkwood

Kirkwood is a system-on-chip (SoC) from Marvell that integrates an ARM CPU, Ethernet, SATA, USB, and other functionality in one chip. Debian currently supports the following Kirkwood based devices: OpenRD (OpenRD-Base, OpenRD-Client and OpenRD-Ultimate), plug computers (SheevaPlug, GuruPlug and DreamPlug), QNAP Turbo Station (all TS-11x, TS-21x and TS-41x models), and LaCie NASes (Network Space v2, Network Space Max v2, Internet Space v2, d2 Network v2, 2Big Network v2 and 5Big Network v2).

Orion5x

Orion is a system-on-chip (SoC) from Marvell that integrates an ARM CPU, Ethernet, SATA, USB, and other functionality in one chip. There are many Network Attached Storage (NAS) devices on the market that are based on an Orion chip. Debian currently supports the following Orion based devices: Buffalo Kurobox, D-Link DNS-323 and HP mv2120.

Versatile

The Versatile platform is emulated by QEMU and is therefore a nice way to test and run Debian on ARM if you don't have real hardware.

2.1.5. Platforms no longer supported by Debian/armel

IOP32x

Intel's I/O Processor (IOP) line is found in a number of products related to data storage and processing, such as the GLAN Tank from IO-Data and the Thecus N2100. Debian has supported the IOP32x platform in Debian 7, but does not support it any longer from version 8 on due to hardware constraints of the platform which make it unsuitable for the installation of newer Debian releases.

MV78xx0

The MV78xx0 platform has been used on the Marvell DB-78xx0-BP development board. It was supported in Debian 7 with a platform-specific kernel (based on the Linux kernel version 3.2), but is not supported any more from Debian 8 onwards.

2.1.6. Graphics Hardware Support

Debian's support for graphical interfaces is determined by the underlying support found in X.Org's X11 system, and the kernel. Basic framebuffer graphics is provided by the kernel, whilst desktop environments use X11. Whether advanced graphics card features such as 3D-hardware acceleration or hardware-accelerated video are available, depends on the actual graphics hardware used in the system and in some cases on the installation of additional firmware images (see Sección 2.2, “Dispositivos que requieren Firmware”).

Nearly all ARM machines have the graphics hardware built-in, rather than being on a plug-in card. Some machines do have expansion slots which will take graphics cards, but that is a rarity. Hardware designed to be headless with no graphics at all is quite common. Whilst basic framebuffer video provided by the kernel should work on all devices that have graphics, fast 3D graphics invariably needs binary drivers to work. The situation is changing quickly but at the time of the jessie release free drivers for nouveau (Nvidia Tegra K1 SoC) and freedreno (Qualcomm Snapdragon SoCs) are available in the release. Other hardware needs non-free drivers from 3rd parties.

Details on supported graphics hardware and pointing devices can be found at http://xorg.freedesktop.org/. Debian 8 ships with X.Org version 7.7.

2.1.7. Hardware de conectividad de red

Casi cualquier tarjeta de interfaz de red (también llamadas «network interface card» o NIC, n. del t.) compatible con el núcleo de Linux es también compatible con el sistema de instalación. Por regla general, los controladores modulares se cargarán automáticamente.

Para 32-bit soft-float ARM, la mayoría de dispositivos incorporados Ethernet son compatibles, y se proporcionan módulos para dispositivos adicionales PCI e USB.

2.1.8. Periféricos y otro hardware

Linux supports a large variety of hardware devices such as mice, printers, scanners, PCMCIA/CardBus/ExpressCard and USB devices. However, most of these devices are not required while installing the system.