2.1. 지원하는 하드웨어

데비안은 Linux 및 kFreeBSD 커널과 GNU 툴셋을 쓰는데 필요한 것 외에는 특별한 하드웨어를 요구하지 않습니다. 그러므로 Linux 및 kFreeBSD 커널, libc, gcc등이 포팅되어 있고, 데비안 포팅이 존재하면 아키텍처나 플랫폼에서 데비안을 작동시킬 수 있습니다. 이미 데비안 GNU/리눅스에서 테스트되는 32-bit soft-float ARM 아키텍처 시스템의 자세한 내용은 http://www.debian.org/ports/arm/에있는 포팅 페이지를 참조하십시오.

여기서는 32-bit soft-float ARM 아키텍처에서 지원하는 여러가지 하드웨어를 모두 설명하지는 않고, 일반적인 정보만 설명한 다음 추가 정보가 들어 있는 웹사이트를 안내해 놓았습니다.

2.1.1. 지원하는 아키텍처

데비안 GNU/Linux 8 supports ten major architectures and several variations of each architecture known as flavors.

아키텍처 데비안의 명칭 서브 아키텍처 기종
인텔 x86 기반 i386    
AMD64 및 인텔 64 amd64    
ARM armel 인텔 IXP4xx ixp4xx
Marvell Kirkwood kirkwood
Marvell Orion orion5x
Versatile versatile
ARM, 하드웨어 FPU 포함 armhf 멀티플랫폼 armmp
LPAE 가능 시스템에 대한 멀티플랫폼 armmp-lpae
64비트 ARM arm64    
MIPS (빅 엔디안) mips SGI IP22 (Indy/Indigo 2) r4k-ip22
SGI IP32 (O2) r5k-ip32
MIPS Malta (32비트) 4kc-malta
MIPS Malta (64비트) 5kc-malta
MIPS (리틀 엔디안) mipsel MIPS Malta (32비트) 4kc-malta
MIPS Malta (64비트) 5kc-malta
IBM/모토로라 PowerPC powerpc 파워맥 pmac
PReP prep
Power Systems ppc64el IBM POWER8 or newer machines  
64비트 IBM S/390 s390x VM-reader 및 DASD에서 IPL generic

데비안 GNU/kFreeBSD은 8이 아키텍처를 지원합니다.

아키텍처 데비안의 명칭
인텔 x86 기반 kfreebsd-i386
AMD64 및 인텔 64 kfreebsd-amd64

이 문서는 Linux커널을 이용한 32-bit soft-float ARM 아키텍처에서의 설치를 다루고 있습니다. 데비안이 지원하는 다른 아키텍처에 관한 정보를 찾고있다면, 데비안 포팅 페이지를 참조하십시오.

2.1.2. Three different ARM ports

The ARM architecture has evolved over time and modern ARM processors provide features which are not available in older models. 데비안 therefore provides three ARM ports to give the best support for a very wide range of different machines:

  • 데비안/armel targets older 32-bit ARM processors without support for a hardware floating point unit (FPU),

  • 데비안/armhf works only on newer 32-bit ARM processors which implement at least the ARMv7 architecture with version 3 of the ARM vector floating point specification (VFPv3). It makes use of the extended features and performance enhancements available on these models.

  • 데비안/arm64 works on 64-bit ARM processors which implement at least the ARMv8 architecture.

Technically, all currently available ARM CPUs can be run in either endian mode (big or little), but in practice the vast majority use little-endian mode. All of 데비안/arm64, 데비안/armhf and 데비안/armel support only little-endian systems.

2.1.3. Variations in ARM CPU designs and support complexity

ARM systems are much more heterogeneous than those based on the i386/amd64-based PC architecture, so the support situation can be much more complicated.

The ARM architecture is used mainly in so-called system-on-chip (SoC) designs. These SoCs are designed by many different companies with vastly varying hardware components even for the very basic functionality required to bring the system up. System firmware interfaces have been increasingly standardised over time, but especially on older hardware firmware/boot interfaces vary a great deal, so on these systems the Linux kernel has to take care of many system-specific low-level issues which would be handled by the mainboard's BIOS in the PC world.

At the beginning of the ARM support in the Linux kernel, the hardware variety resulted in the requirement of having a separate kernel for each ARM system in contrast to the one-fits-all kernel for PC systems. As this approach does not scale to a large number of different systems, work was done to allow booting with a single ARM kernel that can run on different ARM systems. Support for newer ARM systems is now implemented in a way that allows the use of such a multiplatform kernel, but for several older systems a separate specific kernel is still required. Because of this, the standard 데비안 distribution only supports installation on a selected number of such older ARM systems, alongside the newer systems which are supported by the ARM multiplatform kernels (called 'armmp') in 데비안/armhf.

2.1.4. Debian/armel이 지원하는 플랫폼

다음 플랫폼을 데비안/armel이 지원합니다. 플랫폼마다 전용 커널이 필요합니다.

IXP4xx

The Intel IXP4xx processor series is used in commonly used network attached storage (NAS) devices like the Linksys NSLU2.

While there is kernel support for this platform in 데비안 8, it is not supported by the debian-installer. It is possible to do a dist-upgrade from 데비안 7 to 데비안 8 for existing installations, though. Due to the small amount of RAM that systems based on the IXP4xx typically have, this requires that swap space is enabled prior to upgrading. Support for the IXP4xx platform will be dropped completely in 데비안 9.

Kirkwood

Kirkwood is a system-on-chip (SoC) from Marvell that integrates an ARM CPU, Ethernet, SATA, USB, and other functionality in one chip. 데비안 currently supports the following Kirkwood based devices: OpenRD (OpenRD-Base, OpenRD-Client and OpenRD-Ultimate), plug computers (SheevaPlug, GuruPlug and DreamPlug), QNAP Turbo Station (all TS-11x, TS-21x and TS-41x models), and LaCie NASes (Network Space v2, Network Space Max v2, Internet Space v2, d2 Network v2, 2Big Network v2 and 5Big Network v2).

Orion5x

Orion is a system-on-chip (SoC) from Marvell that integrates an ARM CPU, Ethernet, SATA, USB, and other functionality in one chip. There are many Network Attached Storage (NAS) devices on the market that are based on an Orion chip. 데비안 currently supports the following Orion based devices: Buffalo Kurobox, D-Link DNS-323 and HP mv2120.

Versatile

The Versatile platform is emulated by QEMU and is therefore a nice way to test and run 데비안 on ARM if you don't have real hardware.

2.1.5. 이제 Debian/armel이 지원하지 않는 플랫폼

IOP32x

인텔의 I/O 프로세서(IOP) 제품군은 데이터 스토리지 및 데이터 처리에 사용하는 제품입니다. IO-Data의 GLAN TankThecus N2100이 여기 해당합니다. 데비안은 IOP32x 플랫폼을 데비안 버전 7에서 지원했지만, 버전 8부터는 지원하지 않습니다. 이 플랫폼의 하드웨어 제약 때문에 최근 데비안 릴리스 설치가 부적합하기 때문입니다.

MV78xx0

The MV78xx0 platform has been used on the Marvell DB-78xx0-BP development board. It was supported in 데비안 7 with a platform-specific kernel (based on the Linux kernel version 3.2), but is not supported any more from 데비안 8 onwards.

2.1.6. Graphics Hardware Support

데비안's support for graphical interfaces is determined by the underlying support found in X.Org's X11 system, and the kernel. Basic framebuffer graphics is provided by the kernel, whilst desktop environments use X11. Whether advanced graphics card features such as 3D-hardware acceleration or hardware-accelerated video are available, depends on the actual graphics hardware used in the system and in some cases on the installation of additional firmware images (see 2.2절. “펌웨어가 필요한 장치”).

Nearly all ARM machines have the graphics hardware built-in, rather than being on a plug-in card. Some machines do have expansion slots which will take graphics cards, but that is a rarity. Hardware designed to be headless with no graphics at all is quite common. Whilst basic framebuffer video provided by the kernel should work on all devices that have graphics, fast 3D graphics invariably needs binary drivers to work. The situation is changing quickly but at the time of the jessie release free drivers for nouveau (Nvidia Tegra K1 SoC) and freedreno (Qualcomm Snapdragon SoCs) are available in the release. Other hardware needs non-free drivers from 3rd parties.

Details on supported graphics hardware and pointing devices can be found at http://xorg.freedesktop.org/. 데비안 8 ships with X.Org version 7.7.

2.1.7. 네트워크 연결 하드웨어

Linux 커널이 지원하는 네트워크 인터페이스 카드(NIC)는 모두 설치 시스템에서도 지원합니다. 드라이버 모듈은 일반적으로 자동으로 로드됩니다.

대부분의 내장 이더넷 장치를 지원하고 일부 PCI 및 USB 장치에 대해서는 모듈이 들어 있습니다.

2.1.8. 주변 장치 및 기타 하드웨어

Linux는 마우스, 프린터, 스캐너, PCMCIA/CardBus/ExpressCard 및 USB 장치와 같은 다양한 하드웨어에 폭넓게 대응하고 있습니다. 하지만 시스템을 설치할 때 이 장치가 필요하지는 않습니다.