2.1. Matériel reconnu

En ce qui concerne le matériel, Debian n'a pas plus d'exigences que le noyau Linux ou kFreeBSD et les outils GNU. Par conséquent, toute architecture ou plate-forme sur laquelle le noyau Linux ou kFreeBSD, la libc, le compilateur gcc, etc. ont été portés, et pour laquelle un portage de Debian existe, peut faire fonctionner Debian. Reportez-vous aux pages sur les portages http://www.debian.org/ports/arm/ pour plus de précisions concernant les systèmes d'architecture ARM qui ont été testés avec Debian GNU/Linux.

Plutôt que d'essayer de décrire les différentes configurations matérielles acceptées par ARM, cette section contient des informations générales et des liens vers des informations complémentaires.

2.1.1. Architectures reconnues

Debian GNU/Linux 8 fonctionne sur dix architectures principales et sur de nombreuses variantes de celles-ci, appelées « saveurs ».

Architecture Étiquette Debian Sous-Architecture Saveur
Intel x86-based i386    
AMD64 & Intel 64 amd64    
ARM armel Intel IXP4xx ixp4xx
Marvell Kirkwood kirkwood
Marvell Orion orion5x
Versatile versatile
ARM avec matériel FPU armhf multiplate-forme armmp
multiplate-forme pour les systèmes à extension d'adressage (LPAE) armmp-lpae
ARM 64 bits arm64    
MIPS (grand boutien) mips SGI IP22 (Indy/Indigo 2) r4k-ip22
SGI IP32 (O2) r5k-ip32
MIPS Malta (32 bits) 4kc-malta
MIPS Malta (64 bits) 5kc-malta
MIPS (petit boutien) mipsel MIPS Malta (32 bits) 4kc-malta
MIPS Malta (64 bits) 5kc-malta
IBM/Motorola PowerPC powerpc PowerMac pmac
PReP prep
Power Systems ppc64el Machines IBM POWER8 ou plus récentes  
IBM S/390 64 bits s390x IPL avec lecteur de machine virtuelle (VM-reader) et accès direct au périphérique de stockage (DASD) generic

Debian GNU/kFreeBSD 8 fonctionne sur deux architectures.

Architecture Étiquette Debian
Intel x86-based kfreebsd-i386
AMD64 & Intel 64 kfreebsd-amd64

Ce document décrit l'installation pour l'architecture ARM avec le noyau Linux. Des versions pour les autres architectures disponibles existent sur les pages Debian-Ports.

2.1.2. Three different ARM ports

The ARM architecture has evolved over time and modern ARM processors provide features which are not available in older models. Debian therefore provides three ARM ports to give the best support for a very wide range of different machines:

  • Debian/armel targets older 32-bit ARM processors without support for a hardware floating point unit (FPU),

  • Debian/armhf works only on newer 32-bit ARM processors which implement at least the ARMv7 architecture with version 3 of the ARM vector floating point specification (VFPv3). It makes use of the extended features and performance enhancements available on these models.

  • Debian/arm64 works on 64-bit ARM processors which implement at least the ARMv8 architecture.

Techniquement, la plupart des CPU ARM peuvent fonctionner en mode petit-boutien ou en mode grand-boutien. Cependant les systèmes les plus courants utilisent le mode petit-boutien. Debian/arm64, Debian/armel et Debian/armhf fonctionnent tous les trois uniquement sur les processeurs ARM petit-boutiens.

2.1.3. Variations in ARM CPU designs and support complexity

ARM systems are much more heterogeneous than those based on the i386/amd64-based PC architecture, so the support situation can be much more complicated.

The ARM architecture is used mainly in so-called « system-on-chip » (SoC) designs. These SoCs are designed by many different companies with vastly varying hardware components even for the very basic functionality required to bring the system up. System firmware interfaces have been increasingly standardised over time, but especially on older hardware firmware/boot interfaces vary a great deal, so on these systems the Linux kernel has to take care of many system-specific low-level issues which would be handled by the mainboard's BIOS in the PC world.

At the beginning of the ARM support in the Linux kernel, the hardware variety resulted in the requirement of having a separate kernel for each ARM system in contrast to the « one-fits-all » kernel for PC systems. As this approach does not scale to a large number of different systems, work was done to allow booting with a single ARM kernel that can run on different ARM systems. Support for newer ARM systems is now implemented in a way that allows the use of such a multiplatform kernel, but for several older systems a separate specific kernel is still required. Because of this, the standard Debian distribution only supports installation on a selected number of such older ARM systems, alongside the newer systems which are supported by the ARM multiplatform kernels (called 'armmp') in Debian/armhf.

2.1.4. Plates-formes prises en charge par Debian/armel

Les plates-formes suivantes sont prises en charge par Debian/armel ; elles nécessitent un noyau spécifique à la plate-forme.

IXP4xx

The Intel IXP4xx processor series is used in commonly used network attached storage (NAS) devices like the Linksys NSLU2.

While there is kernel support for this platform in Debian 8, it is not supported by the installateur Debian. It is possible to do a « dist-upgrade » from Debian 7 to Debian 8 for existing installations, though. Due to the small amount of RAM that systems based on the IXP4xx typically have, this requires that swap space is enabled prior to upgrading. Support for the IXP4xx platform will be dropped completely in Debian 9.

Kirkwood

Kirkwood is a system-on-chip (SoC) from Marvell that integrates an ARM CPU, Ethernet, SATA, USB, and other functionality in one chip. Debian currently supports the following Kirkwood based devices: OpenRD (OpenRD-Base, OpenRD-Client and OpenRD-Ultimate), plug computers (SheevaPlug, GuruPlug and DreamPlug), QNAP Turbo Station (all TS-11x, TS-21x and TS-41x models), and LaCie NASes (Network Space v2, Network Space Max v2, Internet Space v2, d2 Network v2, 2Big Network v2 and 5Big Network v2).

Orion5x

Orion is a system-on-chip (SoC) from Marvell that integrates an ARM CPU, Ethernet, SATA, USB, and other functionality in one chip. There are many Network Attached Storage (NAS) devices on the market that are based on an Orion chip. Debian currently supports the following Orion based devices: Buffalo Kurobox, D-Link DNS-323 and HP mv2120.

Versatile

The Versatile platform is emulated by QEMU and is therefore a nice way to test and run Debian on ARM if you don't have real hardware.

2.1.5. Plates-formes qui ne sont plus prises en charge par Debian/armel

IOP32x

On trouve la famille de processeurs d'Intel I/O Processor (IOP) sur nombre de produits relatifs au stockage de données, comme les périphériques GLAN Tank de IO-Data et Thecus N2100. Debian a pris en charge la plate-forme IOP32x dans Debian 7, mais ne la prend plus en charge à partir de la version 8 à cause des contraintes matérielles de la plate-forme qui la rende inappropriée pour l'installation des nouvelles versions de Debian.

MV78xx0

The MV78xx0 platform has been used on the Marvell DB-78xx0-BP development board. It was supported in Debian 7 with a platform-specific kernel (based on the Linux kernel version 3.2), but is not supported any more from Debian 8 onwards.

2.1.6. Graphics Hardware Support

Debian's support for graphical interfaces is determined by the underlying support found in X.Org's X11 system, and the kernel. Basic framebuffer graphics is provided by the kernel, whilst desktop environments use X11. Whether advanced graphics card features such as 3D-hardware acceleration or hardware-accelerated video are available, depends on the actual graphics hardware used in the system and in some cases on the installation of additional « firmware » images (see Section 2.2, « Périphériques demandant des microprogrammes (firmware) »).

Nearly all ARM machines have the graphics hardware built-in, rather than being on a plug-in card. Some machines do have expansion slots which will take graphics cards, but that is a rarity. Hardware designed to be headless with no graphics at all is quite common. Whilst basic framebuffer video provided by the kernel should work on all devices that have graphics, fast 3D graphics invariably needs binary drivers to work. The situation is changing quickly but at the time of the jessie release free drivers for nouveau (Nvidia Tegra K1 SoC) and freedreno (Qualcomm Snapdragon SoCs) are available in the release. Other hardware needs non-free drivers from 3rd parties.

Details on supported graphics hardware and pointing devices can be found at http://xorg.freedesktop.org/. Debian 8 ships with X.Org version 7.7.

2.1.7. Matériel de connexion réseau

Toute carte réseau (NIC, network interface card) reconnue par le noyau Linux devrait aussi être reconnue par l'installateur. Les pilotes devraient être chargés de manière automatique.

Sur ARM, la plupart des périphériques Ethernet intégrés sont reconnus et des modules pour les périphériques USB et PCI sont fournis.

2.1.8. Périphériques et autres matériels

Linux reconnaît une large gamme de périphériques comme les souris, les imprimantes, les scanners, les modems, les cartes réseau, les périphériques PCMCIA/CardBus/ExpressCard et USB, etc. Cependant, aucun de ces périphériques n'est requis lors de l'installation du système.