Kapitola 2. Čo je nové v Debian 9

Obsah

2.1. Podporované architektúry
2.2. Čo je nové v distribúcii?
2.2.1. Disky CD, DVD a BD
2.2.2. Bezpečnosť
2.2.3. MariaDB replaces MySQL
2.2.4. Improvements to apt and archive layouts
2.2.5. New deb.debian.org mirror
2.2.6. Move to "Modern" GnuPG
2.2.7. A new archive for debug symbols

Wiki obsahuje ďalšie informácie na túto tému.

2.1. Podporované architektúry

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FIXME: add item here

Debian stretch oficiálne podporuje nasledovné architektúry:

  • 32-bitové PC (i386) a 64-bitové PC (amd64)

  • 64-bitový ARM (arm64)

  • ARM EABI (armel)

  • ARMv7 (EABI hard-float ABI, armhf)

  • MIPS (mips (big-endian) a mipsel (little-endian))

  • 64-bitový little-endian PowerPC (mips64el)

  • 64-bitový little-endian PowerPC (ppc64el)

  • IBM System z (s390x)

Ďalšie informácie o stave portov a informácie špecifické pre vašu architektúru sa dočítate na stránkach portov Debianu.

2.2. Čo je nové v distribúcii?

 TODO: Make sure you update the numbers in the .ent file 
     using the changes-release.pl script found under ../

Toto nové vydanie Debianu opäť prináša omnoho viac softvéru ako jeho predchodca jessie; distribúcia obsahuje viac ako 15346 nových balíkov, čo je celkovo viac ako 51687 balíkov. Väčšina softvéru v distribúcii bola aktualizovaná: viac ako 29859 softvérových balíkov (to predstavuje 57 % všetkých balíkov v jessie). Rovnako bolo z rôznych dôvodov z distribúcie odstránené významné množstvo balíkov (viac ako 6739, 13 % balíkov v jessie). Neuvidíte žiadne aktualizácie týchto balíkov a v systémoch na správu balíkov budú označené ako „zastaralé“; pozri Oddiel 4.8, “Zastaralé balíky”.

Debian sa znova dodáva s niekoľkými pracovnými prostrediami a aplikáciami. Okrem iných teraz obsahuje pracovné prostredia GNOME 3.22, KDE 5.8, Xfce 4.12, MATE 1.16 a LXDE.

Kancelárske aplikácie tiež boli aktualizované, vrátane kancelárskych balíkov:

  • LibreOffice je aktualizovaný na 5.2;

  • Calligra je aktualizovaná na 2.9.

Medzi ďalšie aktualizované kancelárske aplikácie patrí Evolution 3.22.

Okrem množstva ďalších obsahuje toto vydanie aj nasledovné aktualizácie softvéru:

BalíkVerzia v 8 (jessie)Verzia v 9 (stretch)
DNS server BIND9.99.10
Emacs24.424.5 and 25.1
Predvolený emailový server Exim4.844.88
Firefox45.5 (alias Iceweasel)50.0
GNU Compiler Collection ako štandardný kompilátor4.96.3
GnuPG1.42.1
Inkscape0.480.91
knižnica GNU C2.192.24
Obraz linuxového jadraséria 3.164.9 series
MariaDB10.010.1
MySQL5.5removed
Nginx1.61.10
OpenJDK78
OpenSSH6.7p17.4p1
Perl5.205.24
PHP5.67.0
MTA Postfix2.113.1
PostgreSQL9.49.6
Python 33.43.5
Samba4.14.5
Vim78
 TODO: (JFS) List other server software? RADIUS? Streaming ?

Debian podporuje Linux Standard Base (LSB) verzie 4.1, s jednou explicitnou odchýlkou od špecifikácie LSB 4.1 špecifickou pre Debian: neobsahuje Qt3.

2.2.1. Disky CD, DVD a BD

The official Debian distribution now ships on 12 to 14 binary DVDs (depending on the architecture) and 12 source DVDs. Additionally, there is a multi-arch DVD, with a subset of the release for the amd64 and i386 architectures, along with the source code. Debian is also released as Blu-ray (BD) and dual layer Blu-ray (DLBD) images for the amd64 and i386 architectures, and also for source code. Debian used to be released as a very large set of CDs for each architecture, but with the stretch release these have been dropped.

2.2.2. Bezpečnosť

For the stretch release, the Debian version of the GNU GCC 6 compiler now defaults to compiling "position independent executables" (PIE). Accordingly the vast majority of all executables will now have address space layout randomization" (ASLR), which is a mitigation for a number of exploits that are now probabilistic rather than deterministic.

2.2.3. MariaDB replaces MySQL

MariaDB is now the default MySQL variant in Debian, at version 10.1. The Stretch release introduces a new mechanism for switching the default variant, using metapackages created from the mysql-defaults source package. For example, installing the metapackage default-mysql-server will install mariadb-server-10.1. Users who had mysql-server-5.5 or mysql-server-5.6 will have it removed and replaced by the MariaDB equivalent. Similarly, installing default-mysql-client will install mariadb-client-10.1.

[Dôležité]Dôležité

Note that the database binary data file formats are not backwards compatible, so once you have upgraded to MariaDB 10.1 you will not be able to switch back to any previous version of MariaDB or MySQL unless you have a proper database dump. Therefore, before upgrading, please make backups of all important databases with an appropriate tool such as mysqldump.

The virtual-mysql-* and default-mysql-* packages will continue to exist. MySQL continues to be maintained in Debian, in the unstable release. See the Debian MySQL Team wiki page for current information about the mysql-related software available in Debian.

2.2.4. Improvements to apt and archive layouts

The apt package manager has seen a number of improvements since jessie. Most of these apply to aptitude as well. The following is a selected highlight of some of these.

On the security side, apt now rejects weaker checksums by default (e.g. SHA1) and attempts to download as an unprivileged user. Please refer to Oddiel 5.3.2.3, “New requirements for APT repository” and Oddiel 5.3.2.1, “APT now fetches files with an unprivileged user ("_apt")” for more information.

The apt-based package managers have also gotten a number of improvements that will remove the annoying "hash sum mismatch" warning that occurs when running apt during a mirror synchronisation. This happens via the new by-hash layout, which enables apt to download metadata files by their content hash.

If you use third-party repositories, you may still experience these intermittent issues, if the vendor does not provide the by-hash layout. Please recommend them to adopt this layout change. A very short technical description is available in the Repository format description

While possibly mostly interesting for mirror administrators, apt in stretch can use DNS (SRV) records to locate a HTTP backend. This is useful for providing a simple DNS name and then managing backends via DNS rather than using a "redirector" service. This feature is also used by the new Debian mirror described in Oddiel 2.2.5, “New deb.debian.org mirror”.

2.2.5. New deb.debian.org mirror

Debian now provides a new additional service called deb.debian.org. It provides the content of the main archive, the security archive, ports and even our new debug archive (see Oddiel 2.2.7, “A new archive for debug symbols”) under a single easy to remember hostname.

This service relies on the new DNS support in apt, but will fallback to a regular redirect for HTTPS access or older versions of apt. More details are provided on deb.debian.org.

Thanks to Fastly and Amazon CloudFront for sponsoring the CDN backends behind this service.

2.2.6. Move to "Modern" GnuPG

The stretch release is the first version of Debian to feature the "Modern" branch of GnuPG in the gnupg package. This brings with it elliptic curve cryptography, better defaults, a more modular architecture, and improved smartcard support. The modern branch also explicitly does not support some older, known-broken formats (like PGPv3). See /usr/share/doc/gnupg/README.Debian for more information.

We will continue to supply the "classic" branch of GnuPG as gnupg1 for people who need it, but it is now deprecated.

2.2.7. A new archive for debug symbols

[Poznámka]Poznámka

This section is mostly interesting for developers or if you wish to attach a full stack trace to a crash report.

Previously, the main debian archive would include packages containg debug symbols for selected libraries or programs. With stretch, most of these have been moved to a separate archive called the "debian-debug" archive. This archive contains the debug symbol packages for the vast majority of all packages provided by Debian.

If you want to fetch such debug packages, please include the following in your apt sources:

deb http://debug.mirrors.debian.org/debian-debug/ stretch-debug main

Alternatively, you can also fetch them from snapshot.debian.org.

Once enabled, you can now fetch debug symbols for the package in question by installing pkg-dbgsym. Please note that individual packages may still provide a pkg-dbg package in the main archive instead of the new dbgsym.