Kapitel 2. Vad är nytt i Debian 9

Innehållsförteckning

2.1. Arkitekturer med stöd
2.2. Vad är nytt i distributionen?
2.2.1. CDs, DVDs, and BDs
2.2.2. Säkerhet
2.2.3. MariaDB replaces MySQL
2.2.4. A new archive for debug symbols

The Wiki has more information about this topic.

2.1. Arkitekturer med stöd

Support for 32-bit PCs no longer covers vanilla i586

The 32-bit PC support (known as the Debian architecture i386) now no longer covers a plain i586 processor. The new baseline is the i686, although some i586 processors (e.g. the "AMD Geode") will remain supported.

Please refer to Avsnitt 5.1.6, ”Minimum requirements for 32-bit Intel is now i686 (with a minor exception)” for more information.

Följande arkitekturer stöds officiellt av Debian stretch:

  • 32-bit PC (i386) and 64-bit PC (amd64)

  • 64-bit ARM (arm64)

  • ARM EABI (armel)

  • ARMv7 (EABI hard-float ABI, armhf)

  • MIPS (mips (big-endian) and mipsel (little-endian))

  • 64-bit little-endian MIPS (mips64el)

  • 64-bit little-endian PowerPC (ppc64el)

  • IBM System z (s390x)

Du kan läsa mer om porteringsstatus och porteringsspecifik information för din arkitektur på Debians webbsidor för porteringar.

2.2. Vad är nytt i distributionen?

TODO: Kom ihåg att uppdatera siffrorna i .ent-filen
     använd skriptet changes-release.pl som finns under ../

This new release of Debian again comes with a lot more software than its predecessor jessie; the distribution includes over 15346 new packages, for a total of over 51687 packages. Most of the software in the distribution has been updated: over 29859 software packages (this is 57% of all packages in jessie). Also, a significant number of packages (over 6739, 13% of the packages in jessie) have for various reasons been removed from the distribution. You will not see any updates for these packages and they will be marked as "obsolete" in package management front-ends; see Avsnitt 4.8, ”Föråldrade paket”.

Debian again ships with several desktop applications and environments. Among others it now includes the desktop environments GNOME 3.22, KDE 5.8, Xfce 4.12, MATE 1.16 and LXDE.

Produktivitetsapplikationerna har också uppgraderats och detta omfattar kontorssvierna:

  • LibreOffice is upgraded to version 5.2;

  • Calligra is upgraded to 2.9;

Updates of other desktop applications include the upgrade to Evolution 3.22.

Den här utgåvan inkluderar även, bland annat, följande programvaruuppdateringar:

PaketVersion i 8 (jessie)Version i 9 (stretch)
BIND DNS Server9.99.10
Emacs2425
Exim default e-mail server4.844.88
Firefox45.5 (AKA Iceweasel)50.0
GNU Compiler Collection som standardkompilator4.96.2
Gnupg2.02.1
Inkscape0.480.91
Biblioteket GNU C2.192.24
LinuxkärnorVersion 3.164.8 series
MariaDB10.010.1
MySQL5.5removed
Nginx1.61.10
OpenJDK78
OpenSSH6.7p17.4p1
Perl5.205.24
PHP5.67.0
Postfix MTA2.113.1
PostgreSQL9.49.6
Python 33.43.5
Samba4.14.5
Vim78
 TODO: (JFS) Lista annan servermjukvara? RADIUS? Streaming ?

Debian stödjer Linux Standard Base (LSB) version 4.1, med ett specifikt undantag specifikt för Debian: Qt3 inkluderas inte.

2.2.1. CDs, DVDs, and BDs

The official Debian distribution now ships on 12 to 14 binary DVDs (depending on the architecture) and 12 source DVDs. Additionally, there is a multi-arch DVD, with a subset of the release for the amd64 and i386 architectures, along with the source code. Debian is also released as Blu-ray (BD) and dual layer Blu-ray (DLBD) images for the amd64 and i386 architectures, and also for source code. Debian used to be released as a very large set of CDs for each architecture, but with the stretch release these have been dropped.

2.2.2. Säkerhet

For the stretch release, the Debian version of the GNU GCC 6 compiler now defaults to compiling "position independent executables" (PIE). Accordingly the vast majority of all executables will now have address space layout randomization" (ASLR), which is a mitigation for a number of exploits that are now probabilistic rather than deterministic.

2.2.3. MariaDB replaces MySQL

MariaDB is now the default MySQL variant in Debian, at version 10.1. The Stretch release introduces a new mechanism for switching the default variant, using metapackages created from the mysql-defaults source package. For example, installing the metapackage default-mysql-server will install mariadb-server-10.1. Users who had mysql-server-5.5 or mysql-server-5.6 will have it removed and replaced by the MariaDB equivalent. Similarly, installing default-mysql-client will install mariadb-client-10.1.

[Viktigt]Viktigt

Note that the database binary data file formats are not backwards compatible, so once you have upgraded to MariaDB 10.1 you will not be able to switch back to any previous version of MariaDB or MySQL unless you have a proper database dump. Therefore, before upgrading, please make backups of all important databases with an appropriate tool such as mysqldump.

The virtual-mysql-* and default-mysql-* packages will continue to exist. MySQL continues to be maintained in Debian, in the unstable release. See the Debian MySQL Team wiki page for current information about the mysql-related software available in Debian.

2.2.4. A new archive for debug symbols

[Notera]Notera

This section is mostly interesting for developers or if you wish to attach a full stack trace to a crash report.

Previously, the main debian archive would include packages containg debug symbols for selected libraries or programs. With stretch, most of these have been moved to a separate archive called the "debian-debug" archive. This archive contains the debug symbol packages for the vast majority of all packages provided by Debian.

If you want to fetch such debug packages, please include the following in your apt sources:

deb http://debug.mirrors.debian.org/debian-debug/ stretch-debug main

Alternatively, you can also fetch them from snapshot.debian.org.

Once enabled, you can now fetch debug symbols for the package in question by installing pkg-dbgsym. Please note that individual packages may still provide a pkg-dbg package in the main archive instead of the new dbgsym.