Kapitel 2. Was ist neu in Debian 8


2.1. Unterstützte Architekturen
2.2. Was ist neu in der Distribution?
2.2.1. CDs, DVDs und BDs
2.2.2. Changes in the GNOME desktop
2.2.3. New default init system (systemd)
2.2.4. Multimedia
2.2.5. Security
2.2.6. MariaDB next to MySQL
2.2.7. PHP applications

The Wiki has more information about this topic.

2.1. Unterstützte Architekturen

Debian 8 introduces two new architectures:

  • arm64, 64-bit port for ARM machines.

  • ppc64el, 64-bit little-endian port for POWER machines.

The following are the officially supported architectures for Debian 8:

  • 32-bit PC ('i386') and 64-bit PC ('amd64')

  • 64-bit ARM ('arm64')

  • ARM EABI (armel)

  • ARMv7 (EABI hard-float ABI, armhf)

  • MIPS (mips (big-endian) und mipsel (little-endian))

  • PowerPC (powerpc)

  • 64-bit little-endian PowerPC ('ppc64el')

  • IBM System z (s390x)

Three architectures which were part of Debian 7 are not released with jessie.

  • As announced when Debian 7 was released, the 32-bit s390 port is discontinued and replaced with s390x.

  • In addition, the ports to IA-64 and Sparc had to be removed from this release due to insufficient developer support. Sparc had been a supported architecture in Debian since 2.1 (1999), while ia64 was introduced in Debian 3.0 (2002).

Finally, the Debian ports to the FreeBSD kernel, kfreebsd-amd64 and kfreebsd-i386, included as technology previews in Debian 6.0 and Debian 7, are not part of this release.

Näheres zum Stand der Portierung und Port-spezifische Informationen für Ihre Architektur finden Sie auf Debians Portierungs-Webseiten.

2.2. Was ist neu in der Distribution?

 TODO: Make sure you update the numbers in the .ent file 
     using the changes-release.pl script found under ../

This new release of Debian again comes with a lot more software than its predecessor wheezy; the distribution includes over 12253 new packages, for a total of over 43512 packages. Most of the software in the distribution has been updated: over 24573 software packages (this is 66% of all packages in wheezy). Also, a significant number of packages (over 5441, 14% of the packages in wheezy) have for various reasons been removed from the distribution. You will not see any updates for these packages and they will be marked as 'obsolete' in package management front-ends; see Abschnitt 4.10, „Veraltete Pakete“.

Debian again ships with several desktop applications and environments. Among others it now includes the desktop environments GNOME 3.14, KDE 4.11, Xfce 4.10, and LXDE.

Produktivprogramme wurde ebenfalls aktualisiert, inklusive der Büroanwendungs-Suites:

  • LibreOffice is upgraded to version 4.3;

  • Calligra is upgraded to 2.8;

  • GNUcash is upgraded to 2.6;

  • GNUmeric is upgraded to 1.12;

  • Abiword is upgraded to 3.0.

Updates of other desktop applications include the upgrade to Evolution 3.12.

Neben vielen weiteren enthält diese Veröffentlichung auch folgende Aktualisierungen:

PaketVersion in 7 (Wheezy)Version in 8 (Jessie)
BIND - DNS-Server9.89.9
Courier - MTA0.680.73
Exim - Standard-E-Mail-Server4.804.84
GNU Compiler Collection (Kompiler-Sammlung) als Standard-Kompiliersoftware4.7 auf PCs, ansonsten 4.64.9
Linux-Kernel-Image3.2-Serie3.16 series
Postfix - MTA2.92.11
Python 33.23.4
 TODO: (JFS) Andere Server-Software aufführen? RADIUS? Streaming?

Debian unterstützt die Linux Standard Base (LSB) Version 4.1 mit einer ausdrücklichen und Debian-spezifischen Abweichung von der LSB 4.1-Spezifikation: Qt3 ist nicht enthalten.

2.2.1. CDs, DVDs und BDs

Die offizielle Debian-Distribution wird jetzt auf 9 bis 10 Binär-DVDs oder 61 bis 69 Binär-CDs (abhängig von der Architektur) bzw. auf 8 Quellcode-DVDs oder 46 Quellcode-CDs ausgeliefert. Zusätzlich gibt es eine multi-arch-DVD mit einer Teilmenge der Veröffentlichung für die amd64- und i386-Architekturen zusammen mit dem Quellcode. Debian wird auch auf Blu-ray-Images veröffentlicht, jeweils zwei für die amd64- und i386-Architekturen, oder zwei für den Quellcode. Aus Platzgründen wurden einige sehr große Pakete von den CDs ausgeschlossen; diese Pakete passen besser zu den DVDs und BDs, daher sind sie nur auf diesen enthalten.

2.2.2. Changes in the GNOME desktop

Being upgraded to version 3.14, the new GNOME desktop brings many new features and usability improvements.

The design of the GNOME shell has been updated. The bottom message tray is larger, easier to use and less prone to appear accidentally. A new system status area in the upper right corner puts all useful settings in the same place.

The screensaver has been replaced by a “lock screen” that still brings minimal functionality when the user is away. For example, you can pause the music, be informed of a new email, or change the screen brightness, all of that without entering a password. Pressing the Escape key or starting to type the password brings back the login prompt. The GNOME display manager uses the exact same design for consistency.

Several applications, including the Nautilus file manager, the gedit text editor, and the evince document viewer, have seen their design made much more compact, merging the window titlebar with the toolbar. This leaves much more room for the documents the user is working on. The standard dialog boxes have undergone similar changes.

Support for touch screens has been fully integrated, including intuitive gestures based on multiple fingers movements. GNOME now also supports high resolution (HiDPI) screens, taking full advantage of fine pixeling for the clearest rendering.

GNOME supports geolocation, and includes a smooth mapping and navigation application.

The user documentation is much more complete, and includes video tutorials for new users.

More information can be found in the GNOME 3.14 release notes.

2.2.3. New default init system (systemd)

Introduced in Debian 7, systemd is now the default init system. It provides advanced monitoring, logging and service management capabilities.

While it is designed as a drop-in sysvinit replacement and as such makes use of existing SysV init scripts, the systemd package can be installed safely alongside sysvinit and started via the init=/bin/systemd kernel option. The systemd-sysv package provides the /sbin/init replacement.

For more information on this topic, see the Debian wiki.

2.2.4. Multimedia

TODO: Need to include stuff from <5447EC14.2070502@debian.org>

2.2.5. Security

The legacy secure sockets layer protocol SSLv3 has been disabled in this release in many packages. Many System cryptography libraries as well as servers and client applications have been compiled or configured without support for this protocol.

Continuing on the path set by Wheezy, more packages have been built with hardened compiler flags. Also, the stack protector flag has been switched to stack-protector-strong for extra hardening. Note that the hardened build flags are not enabled by default in gcc, so they are not used automatically when locally building software. The package hardening-wrapper can provide a gcc with these flags enabled.

2.2.6. MariaDB next to MySQL

Next to the older MySQL 5.5, Jessie ships the new MariaDB 10.0. Percona XtraDB Cluster is not shipped with Jessie, it will likely get shipped with Stretch. See the Debian MySQL Team wiki page for more information.

2.2.7. PHP applications

The Horde Application Framework is available in Jessie, via the php-horde package.