Capítulo 2. Las novedades de Debian 8

Tabla de contenidos

2.1. Arquitecturas soportadas
2.2. ¿Qué novedades hay en la distribución?
2.2.1. CDs, DVDs, and BDs
2.2.2. Changes in the GNOME desktop
2.2.3. New default init system (systemd)
2.2.4. Multimedia
2.2.5. Security
2.2.6. MariaDB next to MySQL
2.2.7. PHP applications
2.2.8. Debian Games Blend
2.2.9. News from Debian Med Blend

The Wiki has more information about this topic.

2.1. Arquitecturas soportadas

Debian 8 introduces two new architectures:

  • arm64, 64-bit port for ARM machines.

  • ppc64el, 64-bit little-endian port for POWER machines.

The following are the officially supported architectures for Debian 8:

  • 32-bit PC ('i386') and 64-bit PC ('amd64')

  • 64-bit ARM ('arm64')

  • ARM EABI («armel»)

  • ARMv7 (EABI hard-float ABI, «armhf»)

  • MIPS («mips» («big-endian») y «mipsel» («little-endian»))

  • PowerPC («powerpc»)

  • 64-bit little-endian PowerPC ('ppc64el')

  • IBM System z («s390x»)

Three architectures which were part of Debian 7 are not released with jessie.

  • As announced when Debian 7 was released, the 32-bit s390 port is discontinued and replaced with s390x.

  • In addition, the ports to IA-64 and Sparc had to be removed from this release due to insufficient developer support. Sparc had been a supported architecture in Debian since 2.1 (1999), while ia64 was introduced in Debian 3.0 (2002).

Finally, the Debian ports to the FreeBSD kernel, kfreebsd-amd64 and kfreebsd-i386, included as technology previews in Debian 6.0 and Debian 7, are not part of this release.

Puede leer más acerca del estado y la información específica de las adaptaciones para su arquitectura en la página web de las adaptaciones de Debian.

2.2. ¿Qué novedades hay en la distribución?

 POR HACER: Asegúrate de actualizar los números en el fichero .ent
   usando el script en ../

This new release of Debian again comes with a lot more software than its predecessor wheezy; the distribution includes over 12253 new packages, for a total of over 43512 packages. Most of the software in the distribution has been updated: over 24573 software packages (this is 66% of all packages in wheezy). Also, a significant number of packages (over 5441, 14% of the packages in wheezy) have for various reasons been removed from the distribution. You will not see any updates for these packages and they will be marked as 'obsolete' in package management front-ends; see Sección 4.10, “Paquetes obsoletos”.

Debian again ships with several desktop applications and environments. Among others it now includes the desktop environments GNOME 3.14, KDE 4.11, Xfce 4.10, and LXDE.

También se han actualizado las aplicaciones de productividad, incluyendo las suites de oficina:

  • LibreOffice is upgraded to version 4.3;

  • Calligra is upgraded to 2.8;

  • GNUcash is upgraded to 2.6;

  • GNUmeric is upgraded to 1.12;

  • Abiword is upgraded to 3.0.

Updates of other desktop applications include the upgrade to Evolution 3.12.

Esta versión, entre muchas otras cosas, incluye las siguientes actualizaciones:

PaqueteVersión en 7 (wheezy)Versión en 8 (jessie)
BIND Servidor DNS9.89.9
Courier MTA0.680.73
Exim default e-mail server4.804.84
La colección de compilador GNU como el compilador por omisión4.7 en PCs, 4.6 en otros sistemas4.9
La biblioteca de C de GNU2.132.19
imagen del núcleo de Linuxserie 3.23.16 series
Postfix MTA2.92.11
Python 33.23.4
 POR HACER: (JFS): ¿Listar otros servidores como RADIUS, de streaming, ...?

Debian es compatible con la versión 4.1 de los Estándares Base de Linux («Linux Standard Base», LSB), con una desviación explícita y específica de Debian de la especificación LSB 4.1: no se incluye Qt3.

2.2.1. CDs, DVDs, and BDs

La distribución oficial de Debian se compone ahora de 9 a 10 DVDs binarios o de 61 a 69 CDs binarios (dependiendo de la arquitectura) y 8 DVDs o 46 CDs de fuentes. Adicionalmente existe un DVD multi-arch, con un subconjunto de la distribución para las arquitecturas amd64 y i386, así como su código fuente. Debian también se distribuye en imágenes Blu-ray (BD, son 2 para cada una de las arquitecturas amd64 y i386, o uno para el código fuente. Por razones de espacio, algunos paquetes muy grandes se han omitido de los CDs generados. Estos paquetes encajan mejor en los DVD y BD por lo que se incluyen allí.

2.2.2. Changes in the GNOME desktop

Being upgraded to version 3.14, the new GNOME desktop brings many new features and usability improvements.

The design of the GNOME shell has been updated. The bottom message tray is larger, easier to use and less prone to appear accidentally. A new system status area in the upper right corner puts all useful settings in the same place.

The screensaver has been replaced by a "lock screen" that still brings minimal functionality when the user is away. For example, you can pause the music, be informed of a new e-mail, or change the screen brightness, all of that without entering a password. Pressing the Escape key or starting to type the password brings back the login prompt. The GNOME display manager uses the exact same design for consistency.

Several applications, including the Nautilus file manager, the gedit text editor, and the evince document viewer have seen their design made much more compact, merging the window titlebar with the toolbar. This leaves much more room for the documents the user is working on. The standard dialog boxes have undergone similar changes.

Support for touch screens has been fully integrated, including intuitive gestures based on multiple finger movements. GNOME now also supports high resolution (HiDPI) screens, taking full advantage of fine pixeling for the clearest rendering.

GNOME supports geolocation, and includes a smooth mapping and navigation application.

The user documentation is much more complete, and includes video tutorials for new users.

More information can be found in the GNOME 3.14 release notes.

2.2.3. New default init system (systemd)

Introduced in Debian 7, systemd is now the default init system. It provides advanced monitoring, logging, and service management capabilities.

While it is designed as a drop-in sysvinit replacement and as such makes use of existing SysV init scripts, the systemd package can be installed safely alongside sysvinit and started via the init=/bin/systemd kernel option. The systemd-sysv package provides the /sbin/init replacement.

For more information on this topic, see the Debian wiki.

2.2.4. Multimedia

TODO: Need to include stuff from <>

2.2.5. Security

The legacy secure sockets layer protocol SSLv3 has been disabled in this release. Many system cryptography libraries as well as servers and client applications have been compiled or configured without support for this protocol.

The Linux kernel features a security mechanism which nullifies many symlink attacks. It is enabled in the Debian Linux kernel by default. /tmp-related bugs which are rendered non-exploitable by this mechanism are not treated as security vulnerabilities. If you use a custom Linux kernel you should enable it using a sysctl setting:

echo 1 > /proc/sys/fs/protected_symlinks

In some rare cases the security support for a package shipped in a Debian release needs to be terminated prior to the end of support for the full distribution. Jessie provides a new package (debian-security-support) which emits a warning if support for a package needs to be terminated in advance. It also documents packages where the scope of security support is limited. As such, it is recommended to install debian-security-support on all security-relevant systems.

Continuing on the path set by Wheezy, more packages have been built with hardened compiler flags. Also, the stack protector flag has been switched to stack-protector-strong for extra hardening. Note that the hardened build flags are not enabled by default in gcc, so they are not used automatically when locally building software. The package hardening-wrapper can provide a gcc with these flags enabled.

New in this release is the needrestart package. When installed, it will perform a check after each APT upgrade session. If any services running on the system require a restart to take advantage of changes in the upgraded packages then it offers to perform these restarts. It is recommended to install needrestart to ensure that security updates in libraries are propagated to running services.

2.2.6. MariaDB next to MySQL

Along with the older MySQL 5.5, Jessie ships the new MariaDB 10.0. See the Debian MySQL Team wiki page for more information. Only one of them is likely to be included in Debian 9.

Note that upstream support for MySQL 5.5 will cease in December 2017 (and Debian security support will have to follow that), while MariaDB 10.0 will receive upstream security support until March 2019.

2.2.7. PHP applications

The Horde Application Framework is available in Jessie, via the php-horde package.

2.2.8. Debian Games Blend

The Debian Games Team proudly presents the Debian Games Blend consisting of 33 metapackages which simplify the installation of games per category. The selection includes among many others strategy, simulation, card, and programming games. Debian Games also offers developers a quick way to install recommended software for developing games in the C++, Java, Perl, or Python 3 programming languages. Content developers will find useful tools for creating game art in games-content-dev. The project homepage provides screenshots and further information and offers a compact overview about all games including Debian's finest games.

2.2.9. News from Debian Med Blend

The Debian Med team has increased the number of packages in the field of biology and medicine again by a large amount. However, not only the number of packages was increased but also the quality of packages in terms of testing (at package build time as well as autopkgtest) was enhanced and supports the demand of Debian Med in a scientific environment to fullfill the request of scientists for reproducible results. These enhancements are reflected by version 2.0 of the Debian Med metapackages. Feel free to visit the Debian Med tasks pages to see the full range of biological and medical software inside Debian.