Capitolo 2. Cosa c'è di nuovo in Debian 8

Indice

2.1. Architetture supportate
2.2. Cosa c'è di nuovo nella distribuzione?
2.2.1. CD, DVD e BD
2.2.2. Changes in the GNOME desktop
2.2.3. New default init system (systemd)
2.2.4. Multimedia
2.2.5. Security
2.2.6. MariaDB next to MySQL
2.2.7. PHP applications

Il Wiki contiene ulteriori informazioni su questo argomento.

2.1. Architetture supportate

Debian 8 introduce due nuove architetture:

  • arm64, port a 64 bit per macchine ARM.

  • ppc64el, port little-endian a 64 bit per macchine POWER.

Le seguenti architetture sono ufficialmente supportate da Debian 8:

  • PC a 32 bit («i386») e PC a 64 bit («amd64»)

  • ARM a 64-bit («arm64»)

  • ARM EABI («armel»)

  • ARMv7 (EABI hard-float ABI, «armhf»)

  • MIPS («mips» (big-endian) e «mipsel» (little-endian))

  • PowerPC («powerpc»)

  • PowerPC little-endian a 64 bit («ppc64el»)

  • IBM System z («s390x»)

Three architectures which were part of Debian 7 are not released with jessie.

  • As announced when Debian 7 was released, the 32-bit s390 port is discontinued and replaced with s390x.

  • In addition, the ports to IA-64 and Sparc had to be removed from this release due to insufficient developer support. Sparc had been a supported architecture in Debian since 2.1 (1999), while ia64 was introduced in Debian 3.0 (2002).

Finally, the Debian ports to the FreeBSD kernel, kfreebsd-amd64 and kfreebsd-i386, included as technology previews in Debian 6.0 and Debian 7, are not part of this release.

Maggiori informazioni sullo stato dei port e informazioni specifiche sul port per la propria architettura sono disponibili nelle pagine web relative ai port di Debian.

2.2. Cosa c'è di nuovo nella distribuzione?

 TODO: Make sure you update the numbers in the .ent file 
     using the changes-release.pl script found under ../

This new release of Debian again comes with a lot more software than its predecessor wheezy; the distribution includes over 12253 new packages, for a total of over 43512 packages. Most of the software in the distribution has been updated: over 24573 software packages (this is 66% of all packages in wheezy). Also, a significant number of packages (over 5441, 14% of the packages in wheezy) have for various reasons been removed from the distribution. You will not see any updates for these packages and they will be marked as 'obsolete' in package management front-ends; see Sezione 4.10, «Pacchetti obsoleti».

Debian viene ancora una volta fornita con molti ambienti e applicazioni desktop. Fra l'altro include ora gli ambienti desktop GNOME 3.14, KDE 4.11, Xfce 4.10 e LXDE.

Anche le applicazioni per la produttività sono state aggiornate, incluse le suite per l'ufficio:

  • LibreOffice viene aggiornato a 4.3;

  • Calligra viene aggiornato a 2.8;

  • GNUcash viene aggiornato a 2.6;

  • GNUmeric viene aggiornato a 1.12;

  • Abiword viene aggiornato a 3.0.

Updates of other desktop applications include the upgrade to Evolution 3.12.

Fra i molti altri, questa versione include anche i seguenti aggiornamenti software:

PacchettoVersione in 7 (wheezy)Versione in 8 (jessie)
Apache2.2.222.4.10
BIND Server DNS9.89.9
Courier MTA0.680.73
Dia0.97.20.97.3
Exim, server predefinito per la posta elettronica.4.804.84
GNU Compiler Collection come compilatore predefinito4.7 su PC, 4.6 altrove4.9
la libreria C GNU2.132.19
lighttpd1.4.311.4.35
Immagine del kernel Linuxserie 3.2serie 3.16
maradns1.4.122.0.09
OpenLDAP2.4.312.4.40
OpenSSH6.0p16.7p1
Perl5.145.20
PHP5.45.6
MTA Postfix2.92.11
PostgreSQL9.19.4
Python 33.23.4
Samba3.64.1
 TODO: (JFS) List other server software? RADIUS? Streaming ?

Debian supporta il Linux Standard Base (LSB), versione 4.1, con una deroga esplicita specifica di Debian alla specifica 4.1 di LSB: non è incluso Qt3.

2.2.1. CD, DVD e BD

La distribuzione ufficiale Debian richiede un numero variabile fra 9 e 10 DVD di binari o fra i 61 e i 69 CD di binari (secondo l'architettura) e 8 DVD o 46 CD di sorgenti. Inoltre vi è un DVD multi architettura, con un sottoinsieme del rilascio per le architetture amd64 e i386 e il codice sorgente. Debian è anche rilasciato come immagini Blu-ray (BD), 2 per le architetture amd64 e i386 e 2 per il codice sorgente. Alcuni pacchetti molto grandi, a causa della loro dimensione, non possono essere inseriti nei CD; tali pacchetti rientrano meglio nei DVD e BD perciò sono comunque inclusi lì.

2.2.2. Changes in the GNOME desktop

Being upgraded to version 3.14, the new GNOME desktop brings many new features and usability improvements.

The design of the GNOME shell has been updated. The bottom message tray is larger, easier to use and less prone to appear accidentally. A new system status area in the upper right corner puts all useful settings in the same place.

The screensaver has been replaced by a “lock screen” that still brings minimal functionality when the user is away. For example, you can pause the music, be informed of a new email, or change the screen brightness, all of that without entering a password. Pressing the Escape key or starting to type the password brings back the login prompt. The GNOME display manager uses the exact same design for consistency.

Several applications, including the Nautilus file manager, the gedit text editor, and the evince document viewer, have seen their design made much more compact, merging the window titlebar with the toolbar. This leaves much more room for the documents the user is working on. The standard dialog boxes have undergone similar changes.

Support for touch screens has been fully integrated, including intuitive gestures based on multiple fingers movements. GNOME now also supports high resolution (HiDPI) screens, taking full advantage of fine pixeling for the clearest rendering.

GNOME supports geolocation, and includes a smooth mapping and navigation application.

The user documentation is much more complete, and includes video tutorials for new users.

More information can be found in the GNOME 3.14 release notes.

2.2.3. New default init system (systemd)

Introduced in Debian 7, systemd is now the default init system. It provides advanced monitoring, logging and service management capabilities.

While it is designed as a drop-in sysvinit replacement and as such makes use of existing SysV init scripts, the systemd package can be installed safely alongside sysvinit and started via the init=/bin/systemd kernel option. The systemd-sysv package provides the /sbin/init replacement.

Per ulteriori informazioni su questo argomento, vedere il Wiki Debian.

2.2.4. Multimedia

TODO: Need to include stuff from <5447EC14.2070502@debian.org>

2.2.5. Security

The legacy secure sockets layer protocol SSLv3 has been disabled in this release. Many system cryptography libraries as well as servers and client applications have been compiled or configured without support for this protocol.

The Linux kernel features a security mechanism which nullifies many symlink attacks. It is enabled in the Debian Linux kernel by default. /tmp-related bugs which are rendered non-exploitable by this mechanism are not treated as security vulnerabilities. If you use a custom Linux kernel you should enable it using a sysctl setting:

echo 1 > /proc/sys/fs/protected_symlinks

In some rare cases the security support for a package shipped in a Debian release needs to be terminated prior to the end of support for the full distribution. jessie provides a new package (debian-security-support) which emits a warning if support for a package needs to be terminated in advance. It also documents packages where the scope of security support is limited. As such, it is recommended to install debian-security-support on all security-relevant systems.

Continuing on the path set by Wheezy, more packages have been built with hardened compiler flags. Also, the stack protector flag has been switched to stack-protector-strong for extra hardening. Note that the hardened build flags are not enabled by default in gcc, so they are not used automatically when locally building software. The package hardening-wrapper can provide a gcc with these flags enabled.

2.2.6. MariaDB next to MySQL

Next to the older MySQL 5.5, Jessie ships the new MariaDB 10.0. See the Debian MySQL Team wiki page for more information. Only one of them is likely to be included in Debian 9.

Note that upstream support for MySQL 5.5 will cease on December 2017 (and Debian security support will have to follow that), while MariaDB 10.0 will receive upstream security support until March 2019.

2.2.7. PHP applications

The Horde Application Framework is available in Jessie, via the php-horde package.