4.3. Forberedning af filer for opstart via USB-hukommelsesdrev

To prepare the USB stick, we recommend to use a system where GNU/Linux is already running and where USB is supported. With current GNU/Linux systems the USB stick should be automatically recognized when you insert it. If it is not you should check that the usb-storage kernel module is loaded. When the USB stick is inserted, it will be mapped to a device named /dev/sdX, where the X is a letter in the range a-z. You should be able to see to which device the USB stick was mapped by running the command lsblk before and after inserting it. (The output of dmesg (as root) is another possible method for that.) To write to your stick, you may have to turn off its write protection switch.

[Advarsel] Advarsel

The procedures described in this section will destroy anything already on the device! Make very sure that you use the correct device name for your USB stick. If you use the wrong device the result could be that all information on, for example, a hard disk is lost.

4.3.1. Preparing a USB stick using a hybrid CD/DVD image

Debian installation images for this architecture are created using the isohybrid technology; that means they can be written directly to a USB stick, which is a very easy way to make an installation media. Simply choose an image (such as the netinst, CD or DVD-1) that will fit on your USB stick. See Afsnit 4.1, “Official Debian GNU/Linux installation images” to get an installation image.

Alternativt kan du for meget små USB-drev på kun nogle få megabyte hente aftrykket mini.iso fra mappen netboot (på placeringen nævnt i Afsnit 4.2.1, “Where to Find Installation Files”).

The installation image you choose should be written directly to the USB stick, overwriting its current contents. For example, when using an existing GNU/Linux system, the image file can be written to a USB stick as follows, after having made sure that the stick is unmounted:

# cp debian.iso /dev/sdX
# sync

Information about how to do this on other operating systems can be found in the Debian CD FAQ.

[Vigtigt] Vigtigt

Aftrykket skal skrives til whole-disk-enheden og ikke en partition, f.eks. /dev/sdb og ikke 7dev/sdb1. Brug ikke værktøjer såsom unetbootin som ændrer aftrykket.

[Vigtigt] Vigtigt

Simply writing the installation image to USB like this should work fine for most users. The other options below are more complex, mainly for people with specialised needs.

Hybridaftrykket på drevet bruger ikke al lagerplads, så kan være en overvejelse værd at bruge den ledige plads til firmware-filer eller pakker eller andre filer efter dit eget valg. Dette kan være nyttigt, hvis du kun har et drev eller bare ønsker at have alt på en enhed.

To do so, use cfdisk or any other partitioning tool to create an additional partition on the stick. Then create a (FAT) filesystem on the partition, mount it and copy or unpack the firmware onto it, for example with:

# mkdosfs -n FIRMWARE /dev/sdX3
# mount /dev/sdX3 /mnt
# cd /mnt
# tar zxvf /path/to/firmware.tar.gz
# cd /
# umount /mnt

Take care that you use the correct device name for your USB stick. The mkdosfs command is contained in the dosfstools Debian package.

[Bemærk] Bemærk

If you have chosen the mini.iso to be written to the USB stick, the second partition doesn't have to be created, as - very nicely - it will already be present. Unplugging and replugging the USB stick should make the two partitions visible.