B.4. 预置文件的内容

本附录使用的配置片段也放在预置例子文件 http://www.debian.org/releases/etch/example-preseed.txt 里面。

请注意,这里的例子是基于 Intel x86 架构的安装过程。如果您安装到其他架构,其中的一些例子(像键盘选择和引导加载器安装)可能不恰当,需要用适合您架构的 debconf 设置替换。

B.4.1. 本地化

设置本地信息只适用于使用 initrd 预置。其他方式下这些问题是在询问之后加载的。

本地可以指定语言和国家。要在引导参数上指定本地,使用 locale=en_US

# Locale sets language and country.
d-i debian-installer/locale string en_US

键盘设置由键盘体系和 keymap 组成。大多数情况下,默认可以选择正确的键盘体系,因此通常不必预置。keymap 必须对所选择的键盘体系有效。

# Keyboard selection.
#d-i console-tools/archs select at
d-i console-keymaps-at/keymap select us
# Example for a different keyboard architecture
#d-i console-keymaps-usb/keymap select mac-usb-us

使用 skip-config 可以跳过键盘预置 console-tools/archs。这将导致内核 keymap 保持活动。

注意

2.6 内核的输入层的变更实际上让键盘体系已经作废。对于 2.6 内核,通常应该选择 “PC” (at) keymap。

B.4.2. 网络设置

显而易见,预置网络设置对于从网络加载预置文件无效。但对从 CD 和 U 盘引导很有帮助。如果您计划从网络加载预置文件,应该使用传递网络设置给内核引导参数的方式。

如果您需要网络引导从网络加载预置文件前指定网卡,请用这种引导参数 interface=eth1

虽然使用网络预置(用 “preseed/url”)通常并不能配置配置,但是您可以使用下面的技巧实现。例如,为网卡设置静态地址。它使加载了预置文件以后网络预置再运行一次,这需要下面的内容包含在 “preseed/run” 脚本里面:

killall.sh dhclient
netcfg

# netcfg will choose an interface that has link if possible. This makes it
# skip displaying a list if there is more than one interface.
d-i netcfg/choose_interface select auto

# To pick a particular interface instead:
#d-i netcfg/choose_interface select eth1

# If you have a slow dhcp server and the installer times out waiting for
# it, this might be useful.
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_timeout string 60

# If you prefer to configure the network manually, uncomment this line and
# the static network configuration below.
#d-i netcfg/disable_dhcp boolean true

# If you want the preconfiguration file to work on systems both with and
# without a dhcp server, uncomment these lines and the static network
# configuration below.
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_failed note
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_options select Configure network manually

# Static network configuration.
#d-i netcfg/get_nameservers string 192.168.1.1
#d-i netcfg/get_ipaddress string 192.168.1.42
#d-i netcfg/get_netmask string 255.255.255.0
#d-i netcfg/get_gateway string 192.168.1.1
#d-i netcfg/confirm_static boolean true

# Any hostname and domain names assigned from dhcp take precedence over
# values set here. However, setting the values still prevents the questions
# from being shown, even if values come from dhcp.
d-i netcfg/get_hostname string unassigned-hostname
d-i netcfg/get_domain string unassigned-domain

# Disable that annoying WEP key dialog.
d-i netcfg/wireless_wep string
# The wacky dhcp hostname that some ISPs use as a password of sorts.
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_hostname string radish

B.4.3. 镜像设置

根据您使用的安装方式,镜像可用于下载安装程序的额外组件、安装基本系统以及为所安装的系统建立 /etc/apt/sources.list

参数 mirror/suite 决定了安装好的系统使用的套件。

参数 mirror/udeb/suite 决定安装程序使用的额外组件的套件。它只在组件通过网络下载并与安装时使用的 initrd 建立套件相匹配时才有效。默认情况下,mirror/udeb/suitemirror/suite 的值相同。

# If you select ftp, the mirror/country string does not need to be set.
#d-i mirror/protocol string ftp
d-i mirror/country string enter information manually
d-i mirror/http/hostname string http.us.debian.org
d-i mirror/http/directory string /debian
d-i mirror/http/proxy string

# Suite to install.
#d-i mirror/suite string testing
# Suite to use for loading installer components (optional).
#d-i mirror/udeb/suite string testing

B.4.4. 分区

使用预置进行硬盘分区受限于 partman-auto 提供的支持。您可以选择使用磁盘上已有的空闲分区或者整个磁盘。磁盘的布局将取决于所使用的预定义方案,用户自定义的方案文件或预置文件包含的方案。当前还不能使用预置配置多个磁盘。

警告

磁盘的标识基于对应驱动加载的次序。如果系统里面有多个磁盘,要确定预置使用了正确的那一个。

# If the system has free space you can choose to only partition that space.
# Note: this must be preseeded with a localized (translated) value.
#d-i partman-auto/init_automatically_partition \
#      select Guided - use the largest continuous free space

# Alternatively, you can specify a disk to partition. The device name
# can be given in either devfs or traditional non-devfs format.
# For example, to use the first disk:
d-i partman-auto/disk string /dev/discs/disc0/disc
# In addition, you'll need to specify the method to use.
# The presently available methods are: "regular", "lvm" and "crypto"
d-i partman-auto/method string lvm

# If one of the disks that are going to be automatically partitioned
# contains an old LVM configuration, the user will normally receive a
# warning. This can be preseeded away...
d-i partman-auto/purge_lvm_from_device boolean true
# And the same goes for the confirmation to write the lvm partitions.
d-i partman-lvm/confirm boolean true

# You can choose from any of the predefined partitioning recipes.
# Note: this must be preseeded with a localized (translated) value.
d-i partman-auto/choose_recipe \
       select All files in one partition (recommended for new users)
#d-i partman-auto/choose_recipe \
#       select Separate /home partition
#d-i partman-auto/choose_recipe \
#       select Separate /home, /usr, /var, and /tmp partitions

# Or provide a recipe of your own...
# The recipe format is documented in the file devel/partman-auto-recipe.txt.
# If you have a way to get a recipe file into the d-i environment, you can
# just point at it.
#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe_file string /hd-media/recipe

# If not, you can put an entire recipe into the preconfiguration file in one
# (logical) line. This example creates a small /boot partition, suitable
# swap, and uses the rest of the space for the root partition:
#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe string                         \
#      boot-root ::                                            \
#              40 50 100 ext3                                  \
#                      $primary{ } $bootable{ }                \
#                      method{ format } format{ }              \
#                      use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext3 }    \
#                      mountpoint{ /boot }                     \
#              .                                               \
#              500 10000 1000000000 ext3                       \
#                      method{ format } format{ }              \
#                      use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext3 }    \
#                      mountpoint{ / }                         \
#              .                                               \
#              64 512 300% linux-swap                          \
#                      method{ swap } format{ }                \
#              .

# This makes partman automatically partition without confirmation.
d-i partman/confirm_write_new_label boolean true
d-i partman/choose_partition \
       select Finish partitioning and write changes to disk
d-i partman/confirm boolean true

B.4.5. 使用 RAID 分区

您可以使用预置来建立软 RAID 阵列。支持 RAID 等级 0、1 和 5,建立降级阵列(degraded arrays)和指定额外设备。如果使用了 RAID 1,您可以预置 grub 来安装阵列中的所有设备;参见 第 B.4.10 节 “安装引导加载器”

警告

这种自动分区方式很容易出错。它是一个非常新的模块,可能还有很多 bug 或者缺少错误的处理。让各种方案正确(有意义而不冲突)的责任在于用户。如果您遇到问题,检查一下 /var/log/syslog

注意,该模块的开发人员只测试了 RAID 0 和 RAID 1。RAID 5 未经测试。高级的 RAID 设置像降级阵列或额外设备只经过了轻量级的测试。

# NOTE: this option is of beta release quality and should be used carefully

# The method should be set to "raid".
#d-i partman-auto/method string raid
# Specify the disks to be partitioned. They will all get the same layout,
# so this will only work if the disks are the same size.
#d-i partman-auto/disk string /dev/discs/disc0/disc /dev/discs/disc1/disc

# Next you need to specify the physical partitions that will be used. 
#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe string \
#      multiraid ::                                         \
#              1000 5000 4000 raid                          \
#                      $primary{ } method{ raid }           \
#              .                                            \
#              64 512 300% raid                             \
#                      method{ raid }                       \
#              .                                            \
#              500 10000 1000000000 raid                    \
#                      method{ raid }                       \
#              .

# Last you need to specify how the previously defined partitions will be
# used in the RAID setup. Remember to use the correct partition numbers
# for logical partitions.
# Parameters are:
# <raidtype> <devcount> <sparecount> <fstype> <mountpoint> \
#          <devices> <sparedevices>
# RAID levels 0, 1 and 5 are supported; devices are separated using "#"
#d-i partman-auto-raid/recipe string \
#    1 2 0 ext3 /                                           \
#          /dev/discs/disc0/part1#/dev/discs/disc1/part1    \
#    .                                                      \
#    1 2 0 swap -                                           \
#          /dev/discs/disc0/part5#/dev/discs/disc1/part5    \
#    .                                                      \
#    0 2 0 ext3 /home                                       \
#          /dev/discs/disc0/part6#/dev/discs/disc1/part6    \
#    .

# This makes partman automatically partition without confirmation.
d-i partman-md/confirm boolean true
d-i partman/confirm_write_new_label boolean true
d-i partman/choose_partition \
       select Finish partitioning and write changes to disk
d-i partman/confirm boolean true

B.4.6. 时钟与时区设置

# Controls whether or not the hardware clock is set to UTC.
d-i clock-setup/utc boolean true

# You may set this to any valid setting for $TZ; see the contents of
# /usr/share/zoneinfo/ for valid values.
d-i time/zone string US/Eastern

B.4.7. 设置 apt

设置 /etc/apt/sources.list 和其他的基本配置选项,将自动地基于您使用的安装方式以及前面问题的回答。您也可以选择性地安装其他(或本地)的仓库。

# You can choose to install non-free and contrib software.
#d-i apt-setup/non-free boolean true
#d-i apt-setup/contrib boolean true
# Uncomment this if you don't want to use a network mirror.
#d-i apt-setup/use_mirror boolean false
# Uncomment this to avoid adding security sources, or
# add a hostname to use a different server than security.debian.org.
#d-i apt-setup/security_host string

# Additional repositories, local[0-9] available
#d-i apt-setup/local0/repository string \
#       deb http://local.server/debian stable main
#d-i apt-setup/local0/comment string local server
# Enable deb-src lines
#d-i apt-setup/local0/source boolean true
# URL to the public key of the local repository; you must provide a key or
# apt will complain about the unauthenticated repository and so the
# sources.list line will be left commented out
#d-i apt-setup/local0/key string http://local.server/key

# By default the installer requires that repositories be authenticated
# using a known gpg key. This setting can be used to disable that
# authentication. Warning: Insecure, not recommended.
#d-i debian-installer/allow_unauthenticated string true

B.4.8. 帐号设置

root 帐号的密码和第一个普通用户的名字和密码都可以预置。您可以给密码使用纯文本或 MD5 哈希 值。

警告

要知道预置密码并不安全,每个可以访问预置文件的用户都可以看到这些密码。使用 MD5 哈希值相对安全一些,但也会造成安全的假象,MD5 哈希值也可以被暴力破解。

# Skip creation of a root account (normal user account will be able to
# use sudo).
#d-i passwd/root-login boolean false
# Alternatively, to skip creation of a normal user account.
#d-i passwd/make-user boolean false

# Root password, either in clear text
#d-i passwd/root-password password r00tme
#d-i passwd/root-password-again password r00tme
# or encrypted using an MD5 hash.
#d-i passwd/root-password-crypted password [MD5 hash]

# To create a normal user account.
#d-i passwd/user-fullname string Debian User
#d-i passwd/username string debian
# Normal user's password, either in clear text
#d-i passwd/user-password password insecure
#d-i passwd/user-password-again password insecure
# or encrypted using an MD5 hash.
#d-i passwd/user-password-crypted password [MD5 hash]

passwd/root-password-cryptedpasswd/user-password-crypted 值可以使用 “!” 作为他们的预置值。这种情况下,对应的帐号关闭。它常用于 root 帐号,用其他替代方法允许管理或 root 登录(例如使用 SSH key 认证或 sudo)。

密码的 MD5 哈希值可以用下面命令产生。

$ echo "r00tme" | mkpasswd -s -H MD5

B.4.9. 基本系统安装

本阶段的安装并没有多少东西需要预置。仅有一个与内核安装相关的问题。

# Select the initramfs generator used to generate the initrd for 2.6 kernels.
#d-i base-installer/kernel/linux/initramfs-generators string yaird

B.4.10. 安装引导加载器

# Grub is the default boot loader (for x86). If you want lilo installed
# instead, uncomment this:
#d-i grub-installer/skip boolean true

# This is fairly safe to set, it makes grub install automatically to the MBR
# if no other operating system is detected on the machine.
d-i grub-installer/only_debian boolean true

# This one makes grub-installer install to the MBR if it also finds some other
# OS, which is less safe as it might not be able to boot that other OS.
d-i grub-installer/with_other_os boolean true

# Alternatively, if you want to install to a location other than the mbr,
# uncomment and edit these lines:
#d-i grub-installer/only_debian boolean false
#d-i grub-installer/with_other_os boolean false
#d-i grub-installer/bootdev  string (hd0,0)
# To install grub to multiple disks:
#d-i grub-installer/bootdev  string (hd0,0) (hd1,0) (hd2,0)

B.4.11. 选择软件包

您可以选择安装存在的任务的组合。写这篇文章时已有的任务是:

  • 标准

  • 桌面

  • gnome 桌面

  • kde 桌面

  • web 服务器

  • 打印服务器

  • dns 服务器

  • 文件服务器

  • 邮件服务器

  • SQL 数据库

  • 便携机

您可以不选任务,并用其他方法安装一系列软件包。我们推荐选上 标准 任务。

如果您打算安装一些安装任务之外的独立软件包,可以使用参数 pkgsel/include。该参数的值可以是用逗号或空格分开的软件包列表,便于在内核命令行上使用。

tasksel tasksel/first multiselect standard, desktop
#tasksel tasksel/first multiselect standard, web-server
#tasksel tasksel/first multiselect standard, kde-desktop

# Individual additional packages to install
#d-i pkgsel/include string openssh-server build-essential

# Some versions of the installer can report back on what software you have
# installed, and what software you use. The default is not to report back,
# but sending reports helps the project determine what software is most
# popular and include it on CDs.
#popularity-contest popularity-contest/participate boolean false

B.4.12. 完成第一阶段安装

# Avoid that last message about the install being complete.
d-i finish-install/reboot_in_progress note

# This will prevent the installer from ejecting the CD during the reboot,
# which is useful in some situations.
#d-i cdrom-detect/eject boolean false

B.4.13. 设置 X

您可以给 Debian 设置 X,但需要了解机器上视频硬件的详细资料,这是因为 Debian 的 X 配置工具无法自动设置每一件事。

# X can detect the right driver for some cards, but if you're preseeding,
# you override whatever it chooses. Still, vesa will work most places.
#xserver-xorg xserver-xorg/config/device/driver select vesa

# A caveat with mouse autodetection is that if it fails, X will retry it
# over and over. So if it's preseeded to be done, there is a possibility of
# an infinite loop if the mouse is not autodetected.
#xserver-xorg xserver-xorg/autodetect_mouse boolean true

# Monitor autodetection is recommended.
xserver-xorg xserver-xorg/autodetect_monitor boolean true
# Uncomment if you have an LCD display.
#xserver-xorg xserver-xorg/config/monitor/lcd boolean true
# X has three configuration paths for the monitor. Here's how to preseed
# the "medium" path, which is always available. The "simple" path may not
# be available, and the "advanced" path asks too many questions.
xserver-xorg xserver-xorg/config/monitor/selection-method \
       select medium
xserver-xorg xserver-xorg/config/monitor/mode-list \
       select 1024x768 @ 60 Hz

B.4.14. 预置其他的软件包

# Depending on what software you choose to install, or if things go wrong
# during the installation process, it's possible that other questions may
# be asked. You can preseed those too, of course. To get a list of every
# possible question that could be asked during an install, do an
# installation, and then run these commands:
#   debconf-get-selections --installer 
> file
#   debconf-get-selections 
>
> file