2.2. Enheter som kräver fast programvara

Besides the availability of a device driver, some hardware also requires so-called firmware or microcode to be loaded into the device before it can become operational. This is most common for network interface cards (especially wireless NICs), but for example some USB devices and even some hard disk controllers also require firmware.

With many graphics cards, basic functionality is available without additional firmware, but the use of advanced features requires an appropriate firmware file to be installed in the system. In some cases, a successful installation can still end up in a black screen or garbled display when rebooting into the installed system. If that happens, some workarounds can be tried to log in anyway (see Avsnitt 6.4.3, ”Completing the Installed System”).

On many older devices which require firmware to work, the firmware file was permanently placed in an EEPROM/Flash chip on the device itself by the manufacturer. Nowadays most new devices do not have the firmware embedded this way anymore, so the firmware file must be uploaded into the device by the host operating system every time the system boots.

I de flesta fall så är den fasta programvaran icke-fri enligt de kriteria som används av Debian GNU/Linux-projektet och kan därför inte inkluderas i huvuddistributionen eller i installationssystemet. Om själva enhetsdrivrutinen är inkluderad i distributionen och om Debian GNU/Linux juridiskt sett kan distribuera den fasta programvaran så finns den ofta tillgänglig som ett separat paket från sektionen non-free i arkivet.

Dock betyder inte det att sådan maskinvara inte kan användas under en installation. Från och med Debian GNU/Linux 5.0, debian-installer finns stöd för inläsning av fast programvara eller paket som innehåller fast programvara från ett flyttbart media, såsom ett USB-minne. Se Avsnitt 6.4, ”Läsa in saknad fast programvara” för detaljerad information om hur man läser in fast programvara eller paket under installationen.

If the debian-installer prompts for a firmware file and you do not have this firmware file available or do not want to install a non-free firmware file on your system, you can try to proceed without loading the firmware. There are several cases where a driver prompts for additional firmware because it may be needed under certain circumstances, but the device does work without it on most systems (this e.g. happens with certain network cards using the tg3 driver).