5.2. Accesibilidad

Some users may need specific support because of e.g. some visual impairment. USB braille displays are detected automatically (not serial displays connected via a serial-to-USB converter), but most other accessibility features have to be enabled manually. Some boot parameters can be appended to enable accessibility features. Note that on most architectures the boot loader interprets your keyboard as a QWERTY keyboard.

5.2.1. Installer front-end

The Debian installer supports several front-ends for asking questions, with varying convenience for accessibility: notably, text uses plain text while newt uses text-based dialog boxes. The choice can be made at the boot prompt, see the documentation for DEBIAN_FRONTEND in Sección 5.3.2, “Parámetros del instalador de Debian”.

5.2.2. Dispositivos Braille USB

Los dispositivos braille USB se deberían detectar automáticamente. Se escogerá automáticamente una versión en texto del instalador, y se instalará automáticamente la funcionalidad para usar braille en el sistema a instalar. Sólo tiene que presionar Enter en el menú de arranque. Una vez que arranca brltty, puede elegir una tabla braille usando el menú de preferencias. La documentación de los atajos de teclado para los dispositivos braille se encuentra en el sitio web de brltty.

5.2.3. Dispositivos Braille Seriales

Serial braille displays cannot safely be automatically detected (since that may damage some of them). You thus need to append the brltty=driver,port boot parameter to tell brltty which driver and port it should use. driver should be replaced by the two-letter driver code for your terminal (see the BRLTTY manual). port should be replaced by the name of the serial port the display is connected to, ttyS0 is the default, ttyUSB0 can be typically used when using a serial-to-USB converter. A third parameter can be provided, to choose the name of the braille table to be used (see the BRLTTY manual); the English table is the default. Note that the table can be changed later by entering the preference menu. A fourth parameter can be provided to pass parameters to the braille driver, such as protocol=foo which is needed for some rare models. Documentation on key bindings for braille devices is available on the brltty website.

5.2.4. Dispositivos de Tarjeta

Algunos dispositivos de accesibilidad se presentan como tarjetas que se insertan dentro de la máquina y que leen el texto directamente de la memoria de vídeo. Para hacer uso de ellas se debe deshabilitar el uso de «framebuffer» con el parámetro de arranque fb=false. Sin embargo, esto reduce el número de idiomas disponibles.

5.2.5. Temas de Alto contraste

For users with low vision, the installer can use a high-contrast color theme that makes it more readable. To enable it, you can use the Accessible high contrast entry from the boot screen with the c shortcut, or append the theme=dark boot parameter.

5.2.6. Zoom

For users with low vision, the graphical installer has a very basic zoom support: the Control++ and Control+- shortcuts increase and decrease the font size.

5.2.7. Expert install, rescue mode, automated install

Expert, Rescue, and Automated installation choices are also available with accessibility support. To access them, one has to first enter the Advanced options submenu from the boot menu by typing a. When using a BIOS system (the boot menu will have beeped only once), this has to be followed by Enter ; for UEFI systems (the boot menu will have beeped twice) that must not be done. Then, to enable speech synthesis, s can optionally be pressed (followed again by Enter on BIOS systems but not on UEFI systems). From there, various shortcuts can be used: x for expert installation, r for rescue mode, or a for automated installation. Again these need to be followed by Enter when using a BIOS system.

The automated install choice allows to install Debian completely automatically by using preseeding, whose source can be entered after accessibility features get started. Preseeding itself is documented in Apéndice B, Instalar automáticamente utilizando preconfiguración.

5.2.8. Accesibilidad del sistema instalado

La documentación sobre accesibilidad del sistema instalado está disponible en la página wiki de accesibilidad de Debian.