2.1. Υποστηριζόμενο Υλικό

To Debian δεν βάζει κάποιες απαιτήσεις υλικού πέρα από αυτές που έχουν ο πυρήνας του Linux ή του kFreeBSD και τα εργαλεία του GNU. Κατά συνέπεια οποιαδήποτε αρχιτεκτονική ή πλατφόρμα στην οποία έχουν υλοποιηθεί ο πυρήνας του Linux ή του kFreeBSD, η libc, ο gcc κλπ. και για την οποία υπάρχει μια υλοποίηση του Debian μπορεί να τρέξει το Debian. Παρακαλούμε, δείτε τις σελίδες των υλοποιήσεων (Ports) στο http://www.debian.org/ports/arm/ για περισσότερες λεπτομέρειες για συστήματα της αρχιτεκτονικής 32-bit hard-float ARMv7 που έχουν δοκιμαστεί με το Debian GNU/Linux.

Δεν γίνεται μια προσπάθεια να περιγραφούν όλες διαφορετικές διαμορφώσεις υλικού που υποστηρίζονται για την αρχιτεκτονική 32-bit hard-float ARMv7 , αντίθετα η ενότητα αυτή περιέχει γενικές πληροφορίες και δείκτες σε μέρη όπου μπορεί να βρει κανείς επιπρόσθετες πληροφορίες.

2.1.1. Υποστηριζόμενες Αρχιτεκτονικές

Debian GNU/Linux 9 supports ten major architectures and several variations of each architecture known as «flavors».

Αρχιτεκτονική Debian Designation Υποαρχιτεκτονική Γεύση
Βασισμένη σε Intel x86 i386 default x86 machines default
Xen PV domains only xen
AMD64 & Intel 64 amd64    
ARM armel Marvell Kirkwood and Orion marvell
ARM με hardware FPU armhf multiplatform armmp
64bit ARM arm64    
32bit MIPS (big endian) mips MIPS Malta 4kc-malta
Cavium Octeon octeon
64bit MIPS (little endian) mips64el MIPS Malta 5kc-malta
Cavium Octeon octeon
Loongson 3 loongson-3
32bit MIPS (little endian) mipsel MIPS Malta 4kc-malta
Cavium Octeon octeon
Loongson 3 loongson-3
Power Systems ppc64el IBM POWER8 ή νεώτερα συστήματα  
64μπιτο IBM S/390 s390x IPL από VM-reader και DASD generic

To κείμενο αυτό καλύπτει την εγκατάσταση για την αρχιτεκτονική 32-bit hard-float ARMv7 που χρησιμοποιεί τον πυρήνα Linux. Αν ψάχνετε πληροφορίες για οποιαδήποτε από τις άλλες υποστηριζόμενες από το Debian αρχιτεκτονικές κοιτάξτε στις σελίδες Debian-Ports.

2.1.2. Τρεις διαφορετικές υλοποιήσεις ARM

Η αρχιτεκτονική ARM έχει εξελιχθεί με τα χρόνια και σύγχρονοι επεξεργαστές ARM παρέχουν χαρακτηριστικά που δεν είναι διαθέσιμα από παλιότερα μοντέλα. Το Debian παρέχει λοιπόν τρεις διαφορετικές υλοποιήσεις για την αρχιτεκτονική ARM για να προσφέρει την καλλίτερη δυνατή υποστήριξη για ένα ευρύ φάσμα διαφορετικών μηχανημάτων:

  • Debian/armel targets older 32-bit ARM processors without support for a hardware floating point unit (FPU),

  • Debian/armhf works only on newer 32-bit ARM processors which implement at least the ARMv7 architecture with version 3 of the ARM vector floating point specification (VFPv3). It makes use of the extended features and performance enhancements available on these models.

  • Το Debian/arm64 δουλεύει σε 64-bit επεξεργαστές ARM που υλοποιούν τουλάχιστον την αρχιτεκτονικήARMv8.

Technically, all currently available ARM CPUs can be run in either endian mode (big or little), but in practice the vast majority use little-endian mode. All of Debian/arm64, Debian/armhf and Debian/armel support only little-endian systems.

2.1.3. Παραλλαγές στον σχεδιασμό των ARM CPU και πολυπλοκότητα υποστήριξης

Τα συστήματα ARM είναι πολύ πιο ετερογενή από αυτά που βασίζονται στις αρχιτεκτονικές για υπολογιστές i386/amd64, με αποτέλεσμα η κατάσταση σχετικά με την υποστήριξή τους να μπορεί να γίνει αρκετά πολύπλοκη.

The ARM architecture is used mainly in so-called «system-on-chip» (SoC) designs. These SoCs are designed by many different companies with vastly varying hardware components even for the very basic functionality required to bring the system up. System firmware interfaces have been increasingly standardised over time, but especially on older hardware firmware/boot interfaces vary a great deal, so on these systems the Linux kernel has to take care of many system-specific low-level issues which would be handled by the mainboard's BIOS in the PC world.

At the beginning of the ARM support in the Linux kernel, the hardware variety resulted in the requirement of having a separate kernel for each ARM system in contrast to the «one-fits-all» kernel for PC systems. As this approach does not scale to a large number of different systems, work was done to allow booting with a single ARM kernel that can run on different ARM systems. Support for newer ARM systems is now implemented in a way that allows the use of such a multiplatform kernel, but for several older systems a separate specific kernel is still required. Because of this, the standard Debian distribution only supports installation on a selected number of such older ARM systems, alongside the newer systems which are supported by the ARM multiplatform kernels (called «armmp») in Debian/armhf.

2.1.4. Πλατφόρμα υποστηριζόμενες από το Debian/armhf

The following systems are known to work with Debian/armhf using the multiplatform (armmp) kernel:

Freescale MX53 Quick Start Board (MX53 LOCO Board)

Η IMX53QSB είναι μια μητρική ανάπτυξης που βασίζεται στο i.MX53 SoC.

Versatile Express

The Versatile Express is a development board series from ARM consisting of a baseboard which can be equipped with various CPU daughter boards.

Μερικές συγκεκριμένες μητρικές και embedded συστήματα βασισμένα στο Allwinner sunXi

The armmp kernel supports several development boards and embedded systems based on the Allwinner A10 (architecture codename «sun4i»), A10s/A13 (architecture codename «sun5i»), A20 (architecture codename «sun7i»), A31/A31s (architecture codename «sun6i») and A23/A33 (part of the «sun8i» family) SoCs. Full installer support (including provision of ready-made SD card images with the installer) is currently available for the following sunXi-based systems:

  • Cubietech Cubieboard 1 + 2 / Cubietruck

  • LeMaker Banana Pi και Banana Pro

  • LinkSprite pcDuino και pcDuino3

  • Olimex A10-Olinuxino-LIME / A20-Olinuxino-LIME / A20-Olinuxino-LIME2 / A20-Olinuxino Micro / A20-SOM-EVB

  • Xunlong OrangePi Plus

System support for Allwinner sunXi-based devices is limited to drivers and device-tree information available in the mainline Linux kernel. Vendor-specific kernel trees (such as the Allwinner SDK kernels) and the android-derived linux-sunxi.org kernel 3.4 series are not supported by Debian.

The mainline Linux kernel generally supports serial console, ethernet, SATA, USB and MMC/SD-cards on Allwinner A10, A10s/A13, A20, A23/A33 and A31/A31s SoCs. The level of support for local display (HDMI/VGA/LCD) and audio hardware varies between individual systems. For most systems, the kernel doesn't have native graphics drivers but instead uses the «simplefb» infrastructure in which the bootloader initializes the display and the kernel just re-uses the pre-initialized framebuffer. This generally works reasonably well, although it results in certain limitations (the display resolution cannot be changed on the fly and display powermanagement is not possible).

Onboard flash memory intended to be used as a mass storage device generally exists in two basic variants on sunXi-based systems: raw NAND flash and eMMC flash. Most older sunXi-based boards with onboard flash storage use raw NAND flash for which support is not generally available in the mainline kernel and therefore also not in Debian. A number of newer systems use eMMC flash instead of raw NAND flash. An eMMC flash chip basically appears as a fast, non-removable SD card and is supported in the same way as a regular SD card.

The installer includes basic support for a number of sunXi-based systems not listed above, but it is largely untested on those systems as the Debian project doesn't have access to the corresponding hardware. No pre-built SD card images with the installer are provided for those systems. Development boards with such limited support include:

  • Olimex A10s-Olinuxino Micro / A13-Olinuxino / A13-Olinuxino Micro

  • Sinovoip BPI-M2 (A31s-based)

  • Xunlong Orange Pi (A20-based) / Orange Pi Mini (A20-based)

In addition to the SoCs and systems listed above, the installer has very limited support for the Allwinner H3 SoC and a number of boards based on it. Mainline kernel support for the H3 is still largely work in progress at the time of the Debian 9 release freeze, so the installer only supports serial console, MMC/SD and the USB host controller on H3-based systems. There is no driver for the on-board ethernet port of the H3 yet, so networking is only possible with a USB ethernet adaptor or a USB wifi dongle. Systems based on the H3 for which such very basic installer support is available include:

  • FriendlyARM NanoPi NEO

  • Xunlong Orange Pi Lite / Orange Pi One / Orange Pi PC / Orange Pi PC Plus / Orange Pi Plus / Orange Pi Plus 2E / Orange Pi 2

NVIDIA Jetson TK1

The NVIDIA Jetson TK1 is a developer board based on the Tegra K1 chip (also known as Tegra 124). The Tegra K1 features a quad-core 32-bit ARM Cortex-A15 CPU and Kepler GPU (GK20A) with 192 CUDA cores. Other systems based on the Tegra 124 may work, too.

Seagate Personal Cloud and Seagate NAS

The Seagate Personal Cloud and Seagate NAS are NAS devices based on Marvell's Armada 370 platform. Debian supports the Personal Cloud (SRN21C), Personal Cloud 2-Bay (SRN22C), Seagate NAS 2-Bay (SRPD20) and Seagate NAS 4-Bay (SRPD40).

SolidRun Cubox-i2eX / Cubox-i4Pro

The Cubox-i series is a set of small, cubical-shaped systems based on the Freescale i.MX6 SoC family. System support for the Cubox-i series is limited to drivers and device-tree information available in the mainline Linux kernel; the Freescale 3.0 kernel series for the Cubox-i is not supported by Debian. Available drivers in the mainline kernel include serial console, ethernet, USB, MMC/SD-card and display support over HDMI (console and X11). In addition to that, the eSATA port on the Cubox-i4Pro is supported.

Wandboard

The Wandboard Quad, Dual and Solo are development boards based on the Freescale i.MX6 Quad SoC. System support is limited to drivers and device-tree information available in the mainline Linux kernel; the wandboard-specific 3.0 and 3.10 kernel series from wandboard.org are not supported by Debian. The mainline kernel includes driver support for serial console, display via HDMI (console and X11), ethernet, USB, MMC/SD, SATA (Quad only) and analog audio. Support for the other audio options (S/PDIF, HDMI-Audio) and for the onboard WLAN/Bluetooth module is untested or not available in Debian 9.

Generally, the ARM multiplatform support in the Linux kernel allows running debian-installer on armhf systems not explicitly listed above, as long as the kernel used by debian-installer has support for the target system's components and a device-tree file for the target is available. In these cases, the installer can usually provide a working installation, but it may not be able to automatically make the system bootable. Doing that in many cases requires device-specific information.

When using debian-installer on such systems, you may have to manually make the system bootable at the end of the installation, e.g. by running the required commands in a shell started from within debian-installer.

2.1.5. Πλατφόρμες που δεν υποστηρίζονται πλέον από το Debian/armhf

EfikaMX

The EfikaMX platform (Genesi Efika Smartbook and Genesi EfikaMX nettop) was supported in Debian 7 with a platform-specific kernel, but is no longer supported from Debian 8 onwards. The code required to build the formerly used platform-specific kernel has been removed from the upstream Linux kernel source in 2012, so Debian cannot provide newer builds. Using the armmp multiplatform kernel on the EfikaMX platform would require device-tree support for it, which is currently not available.

2.1.6. Πολλαπλοί Επεξεργαστές

Υποστήριξη πολλαπλών επεξεργαστών — γνωστή και σαν «συμμετρική πολυ-επεξεργασία» ή SMP — είναι διαθέσιμη για την αρχιτεκτονική αυτή. Ο συνηθισμένος πυρήνας του Debian 9 έχει μεταγλωττιστεί μευποστήριξη SMP-εναλλακτικών. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι ο πυρήνας θα ανιχνεύσει τον αριθμό των επεξεργαστών (ή των επεξεργαστικών πυρήνων) και θα απενεργοποιήσει αυτόματα την πολυεπεξεργασία σε μονοεπεξεργαστικά συστήματα.

Having multiple processors in a computer was originally only an issue for high-end server systems but has become common in recent years nearly everywhere with the introduction of so called «multi-core» processors. These contain two or more processor units, called «cores», in one physical chip.

2.1.7. Graphics Hardware Support

Debian's support for graphical interfaces is determined by the underlying support found in X.Org's X11 system, and the kernel. Basic framebuffer graphics is provided by the kernel, whilst desktop environments use X11. Whether advanced graphics card features such as 3D-hardware acceleration or hardware-accelerated video are available, depends on the actual graphics hardware used in the system and in some cases on the installation of additional «firmware» images (see Τμήμα 2.2, «Συσκευές που απαιτούν firmware»).

Nearly all ARM machines have the graphics hardware built-in, rather than being on a plug-in card. Some machines do have expansion slots which will take graphics cards, but that is a rarity. Hardware designed to be headless with no graphics at all is quite common. Whilst basic framebuffer video provided by the kernel should work on all devices that have graphics, fast 3D graphics invariably needs binary drivers to work. The situation is changing quickly but at the time of the stretch release free drivers for nouveau (Nvidia Tegra K1 SoC) and freedreno (Qualcomm Snapdragon SoCs) are available in the release. Other hardware needs non-free drivers from 3rd parties.

Details on supported graphics hardware and pointing devices can be found at http://xorg.freedesktop.org/. Debian 9 ships with X.Org version 7.7.

2.1.8. Υλικό Δικτυακής Σύνδεσης

Σχεδόν όλoι οι τύποι καρτών δικτύου (NIC) που υποστηρίζονται από τον πυρήνα του Linux πρέπει επίσης να υποστηρίζονται από το σύστημα εγκατάστασης. Οι διάφοροι οδηγοί (drivers) θα πρέπει κανονικά να φορτώνονται αυτόματα.

Στην αρχιτεκτονική 32-bit hard-float ARMv7 , υποστηρίζονται οι περισσότερες ενσωματωμένες συσκευές Ethernet και παρέχονται αρθρώματα για επιπρόσθετες συσκευές PCI και USB.

2.1.9. Περιφερειακά και άλλο Υλικό

Linux supports a large variety of hardware devices such as mice, printers, scanners, PCMCIA/CardBus/ExpressCard and USB devices. However, most of these devices are not required while installing the system.