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Installing Debian GNU/Linux 3.0 For S/390
Chapter 3 - Before Installing Debian GNU/Linux


3.1 Overview of the Installation Process

Here's a road map for the steps you will take during the installation process.

  1. Create partition-able space for Debian on your hard disk
  1. Locate and/or download kernel and driver files (except Debian CD users)
  1. Set up boot tapes or place boot files (except most Debian CD users can boot from one of the CDs)
  1. Boot the installation system
  1. Configure one network interface
  1. Open a telnet connection to the new system
  1. Attach one or more DASDs (Direct Access Storage Device)
  1. Create and mount Debian partitions
  1. Point the installer to the location of the kernel and drivers
  1. Select which peripheral drivers to load
  1. Configure the network interface
  1. Initiate automatic download/install/setup of the base system
  1. Configure Linux or multi-system boot loading
  1. Boot the newly installed system and do some final configuration
  1. Install additional tasks and packages, at your discretion

3.2 Back Up Your Existing Data!

Before you start, make sure to back up every file that is now on your system. If this is the first time a non-native operating system has been installed on your computer, it's quite likely you will need to re-partition your disk to make room for Debian GNU/Linux. Anytime you partition your disk, you should count on losing everything on the disk, no matter what program you use to do it. The programs used in installation are quite reliable and most have seen years of use; but they are also quite powerful and a false move can cost you. Even after backing up be careful and think about your answers and actions. Two minutes of thinking can save hours of unnecessary work.

If you are creating a multi-boot system, make sure that you have the distribution media of any other present operating systems on hand. Especially if you repartition your boot drive, you might find that you have to reinstall your operating system's boot loader, or in many cases the whole operating system itself and all files on the affected partitions.


3.3 Information You Will Need


3.3.1 Documentation


3.3.1.1 Installation Manual

This file you are now reading, in plain ASCII, HTML or PDF format.


3.3.1.2 Dselect for Beginners

Tutorial for using the dselect program. This is one means of installing additional packages onto your system after the basic install is complete.


3.3.1.3 S/390 Hardware References

Installation instructions and device drivers (DASD, XPRAM, Console, tape, z90 crypto, chandev, network) for Linux on S/390 using kernel 2.4

IBM Redbook describing how Linux can be combined with z/VM on zSeries and S/390 hardware.

IBM Redbook describing the Linux distributions available for the mainframe. It has no chapter about Debian but the basic installation concepts are the same across all S/390 distributions.


3.3.1.4 Partitioning Program Manual Pages

Manual pages for the partitioning software used during the installation process.


3.3.1.5 MD5 checksums

List of MD5 checksums for the binary files. If you have the md5sum program, you can ensure that your files are not corrupt by running md5sum -v -c md5sum.txt.


3.3.2 Finding Sources of Hardware Information

Hardware information can be gathered from:

                  Hardware Information Needed for an Install              
     +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
     |Hardware|                Information You Might Need                |
     |--------+----------------------------------------------------------|
     |DASD    |  * Device number(s).                                     |
     |        |  * Available free space.                                 |
     |--------+----------------------------------------------------------|
     |Network |  * Type of adapter.                                      |
     |        |  * Device numbers.                                       |
     |        |  * Relative adapter number for OSA cards.                |
     +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

3.3.3 Hardware Compatibility

Many brand name products work without trouble on Linux. Moreover, hardware for Linux is improving daily. However, Linux still does not run as many different types of hardware as some operating systems.

You can check hardware compatibility by:


3.3.4 Network Settings

If your computer is connected to a network 24 hours a day (i.e., an Ethernet or equivalent connection — not a PPP connection), you should ask your network's system administrator for this information.


3.4 Planning Use of the System

It is important to decide what type of machine you are creating. This will determine the disk space requirements for your Debian system.


3.5 Meeting Minimum Hardware Requirements

Once you have gathered information about your computer's hardware, check that your hardware will let you do the type of installation that you want to do.

Here is a sampling of some common Debian system configurations. You can also get an idea of the disk space used by related groups of programs by referring to Disk Space Needed for Tasks, Section 11.4.

Standard Server
This is a small server profile, useful for a stripped down server which does not have a lot of niceties for shell users. It includes an FTP server, a web server, DNS, NIS, and POP. For these 50MB of disk space would suffice, and then you would need to add space for any data you serve up.
Developer
A desktop setup with all the development packages, such as Perl, C, C++, etc. Size is around 475MB. Assuming you are adding X11 and some additional packages for other uses, you should plan around 800MB for this type of machine.

Remember that these sizes don't include all the other materials which are usually to be found, such as user files, mail, and data. It is always best to be generous when considering the space for your own files and data. Notably, the Debian /var partition contains a lot of state information. The dpkg files (with information on all installed packages) can easily consume 20MB; with logs and the rest, you should usually allocate at least 50MB for /var.


3.6 Pre-Partitioning for Multi-Boot Systems

Partitioning your disk simply refers to the act of breaking up your disk into sections. Each section is then independent of the others. It's roughly equivalent to putting up walls in a house; if you add furniture to one room it doesn't affect any other room.

Whenever this section talks about ``disks'' you should translate this into a DASD or VM minidisk in the S/390 world. Also a machine means an LPAR or VM guest in this case.

If you already have an operating system on your system (VM, z/OS, OS/390, …) and want to stick Linux on the same disk, you will need to repartition the disk. Debian requires its own hard disk partitions. It cannot be installed on Windows or MacOS partitions. It may be able to share some partitions with other Linux systems, but that's not covered here. At the very least you will need a dedicated partition for the Debian root.

You can find information about your current partition setup by using a partitioning tool for your current operating system , such as the VM diskmap . Partitioning tools always provide a way to show existing partitions without making changes.

In general, changing a partition with a file system already on it will destroy any information there. Thus you should always make backups before doing any repartitioning. Using the analogy of the house, you would probably want to move all the furniture out of the way before moving a wall or you risk destroying it.

If your computer has more than one hard disk, you may want to dedicate one of the hard disks completely to Debian. If so, you don't need to partition that disk before booting the installation system; the installer's included partitioning program can handle the job nicely.

If your machine has only one hard disk, and you would like to completely replace the current operating system with Debian GNU/Linux, you also can wait to partition as part of the installation process (Partitioning for Debian, Chapter 6), after you have booted the installation system. However this only works if you plan to boot the installer system from tapes, CD-ROM or files on a connected machine. Consider: if you boot from files placed on the hard disk, and then partition that same hard disk within the installation system, thus erasing the boot files, you'd better hope the installation is successful the first time around. At the least in this case, you should have some alternate means of reviving your machine like the original system's installation tapes or CDs.

If your machine already has multiple partitions, and enough space can be provided by deleting and replacing one or more of them, then you too can wait and use the Debian installer's partitioning program. You should still read through the material below, because there may be special circumstances like the order of the existing partitions within the partition map, that force you to partition before installing anyway.

In all other cases, you'll need to partition your hard disk before starting the installation to create partition-able space for Debian. If some of the partitions will be owned by other operating systems, you should create those partitions using native operating system partitioning programs. We recommend that you do not attempt to create Debian Linux partitions using another operating system's tools. Instead, you should just create the native operating system's partitions you will want to retain.

If you are going to install more than one operating system on the same machine, you should install all other system(s) before proceeding with Linux installation. Windows and other OS installations may destroy your ability to start Linux, or encourage you to reformat non-native partitions.

You can recover from these actions or avoid them, but installing the native system first saves you trouble.

If you currently have one hard disk with one partition (a common setup for desktop computers), and you want to multi-boot the native operating system and Debian, you will need to:

  1. Back up everything on the computer.
  1. Boot from the native operating system installer media such as CD-ROM or tapes.
  1. Use the native partitioning tools to create native system partition(s). Leave either a place holder partition or free space for Debian GNU/Linux.
  1. Install the native operating system on its new partition.
  1. Boot back into the native system to verify everything's OK, and to download the Debian installer boot files.
  1. Boot the Debian installer to continue installing Debian.

3.7 Installing Debian GNU/Linux from a Unix/Linux System

This section explains how to install Debian GNU/Linux from an existing Unix or Linux system, without using the ncurses-based, menu-driven installer as explained in the rest of the manual. This "cross-install" HOWTO has been requested by users switching to Debian GNU/Linux from Redhat, Mandrake, and SUSE. In this section some familiarity with entering *nix commands and navigating the file system is assumed. In this section, $ symbolizes a command to be entered in the user's current system, while # refers to a command entered in the Debian chroot.

Once you've got the new Debian system configured to your preference, you can migrate your existing user data (if any) to it, and keep on rolling. This is therefore a "zero downtime" Debian GNU/Linux install. It's also a clever way for dealing with hardware that otherwise doesn't play friendly with various boot or installation media.


3.7.1 Getting Started

With your current *nix partitioning tools, repartition the hard drive as needed, creating at least one filesystem plus swap. You need at least 150MB of space available for a console only install, or at least 300MB if you plan to install X.

To create file systems on your partitions. For example, to create an ext3 file system on partition /dev/hda6 (that's our example root partition):

      $ mke2fs -j /dev/hda6

To create an ext2 file system instead, omit -j.

Initialize and activate swap (substitute the partition number for your intended Debian swap partition):

      $ mkswap /dev/hda5
      $ sync; sync; sync
      $ swapon /dev/hda5

Mount one partition as /mnt/debinst (the installation point, to be the root (/) filesystem on your new system). The mount point name is strictly arbitrary, it is referenced later below.

      $ mkdir /mnt/debinst
      $ mount /dev/hda6 /mnt/debinst

3.7.2 Install debootstrap

The tool that the Debian installer uses, which is recognized as the official way to install a Debian base system, is debootstrap. It uses wget, but otherwise depends only on glibc. Install wget if it isn't already on your current system, then download and install debootstrap.

If you have an rpm-based system, you can use alien to convert the .deb into .rpm, or download an rpm-ized version at http://people.debian.org/~blade/install/debootstrap

Or, you can use the following procedure to install it manually. Make a work folder for extracting the .deb into:

      $ mkdir work
      $ cd work

The debootstrap binary is located in the Debian archive (be sure to select the proper file for your architecture). Download the debootstrap .deb from the pool, copy the package to the work folder, and extract the binary files from it. You will need to have root privileges to install the binaries.

      $ ar -xf debootstrap_0.X.X_arch.deb
      $ cd /
      $ zcat < /full-path-to-work/work/data.tar.gz | tar xv

The current version of debootstrap, at least for i386, has been compiled with glibc 2.3. Therefore if you are upgrading from Redhat 6.0, you will need to obtain the source files and re-compile.


3.7.3 Run debootstrap (Network-connected)

debootstrap can download the needed files directly from the archive when you run it. You can substitute any Debian archive mirror for http.us.debian.org/debian in the command example below, preferably a mirror close to you network-wise. Mirrors are listed at http://www.debian.org/misc/README.mirrors.

When running debootstrap, the PATH needs to include /usr/sbin and /sbin for subsidiary program calls.

If you have a woody version Debian GNU/Linux CD mounted at /cdrom, you could substitute a file URL instead of the http URL: file:/cdrom/debian/

Substitute one of the following for ARCH in the debootstrap command: alpha, arm, hppa, i386, ia64, m68k, mips, mipsel, powerpc, s390, or sparc.

      $ /usr/sbin/debootstrap --arch ARCH woody \
          /mnt/debinst http://http.us.debian.org/debian

3.7.4 Run debootstrap (Using basedebs.tar)

debootstrap can use the basedebs.tar file, if you have already downloaded it ahead of time. The basedebs.tar file is generated only every once in a while, so you'll get the latest version of the base system by pointing debootstrap directly to a Debian archive as shown in the previous section.

The basedebs.tar file is found in the base-images-current directory of the Debian archive for your architecture, for example: http://http.us.debian.org/debian/dists/woody/main/disks-i386/base-images-current/basedebs.tar

Substitute one of the following for ARCH in the debootstrap command: alpha, arm, hppa, i386, ia64, m68k, mips, mipsel, powerpc, s390, or sparc.

      
     $ /usr/sbin/debootstrap --arch ARCH --unpack-tarball \
         /path-to-downloaded/basedebs.tar woody /mnt/debinst

3.7.5 Configure The Base System

Now you've got a real Debian system, though rather lean, on disk. Chroot into it:

      $ chroot /mnt/debinst /bin/bash

3.7.5.1 Mount Partitions

You need to create /etc/fstab.

      # editor /etc/fstab

Here is a sample you can modify to suit:

     # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
     #
     # file system    mount point   type    options                  dump pass
     /dev/XXX         /             ext2    defaults                 0    0
     /dev/XXX         /boot         ext2    ro,nosuid,nodev          0    2
     
     /dev/XXX         none          swap    sw                       0    0
     proc             /proc         proc    defaults                 0    0
     
     /dev/fd0         /mnt/floppy   auto    noauto,rw,sync,user,exec 0    0
     /dev/cdrom       /mnt/cdrom    iso9660 noauto,ro,user,exec      0    0
     
     /dev/XXX         /tmp          ext2    rw,nosuid,nodev          0    2
     /dev/XXX         /var          ext2    rw,nosuid,nodev          0    2
     /dev/XXX         /usr          ext2    rw,nodev                 0    2
     /dev/XXX         /home         ext2    rw,nosuid,nodev          0    2

Use mount -a to mount all the file systems you have specified in your /etc/fstab, or to mount file systems individually use:

      # mount /path  # e.g.:  mount /usr

You can mount the proc file system multiple times and to arbitrary locations, though /proc is customary. If you didn't use mount -a, be sure to mount proc before continuing:

      # mount -t proc proc /proc

A RedHat user reports that for his system, this should instead be

      # mount -t proc none /proc

3.7.5.2 Configure Keyboard

To configure your keyboard:

      # dpkg-reconfigure console-data

3.7.5.3 Configure Networking

To configure networking, edit /etc/network/interfaces, /etc/resolv.conf, and etc/hostname.

      # editor /etc/network/interfaces

Here are some simple examples from /usr/share/doc/ifupdown/examples:

     ######################################################################
     # /etc/network/interfaces -- configuration file for ifup(8), ifdown(8)
     # See the interfaces(5) manpage for information on what options are 
     # available.
     ######################################################################
     
     # We always want the loopback interface.
     #
     auto lo
     iface lo inet loopback
     
     # To use dhcp:
     #
     # auto eth0
     # iface eth0 inet dhcp
     
     # An example static IP setup: (broadcast and gateway are optional)
     #
     # auto eth0
     # iface eth0 inet static
     #     address 192.168.0.42
     #     network 192.168.0.0
     #     netmask 255.255.255.0
     #     broadcast 192.168.0.255
     #     gateway 192.168.0.1

Enter your nameserver(s) and search directives in /etc/resolv.conf:

      # editor /etc/resolv.conf

A simple /etc/resolv.conf:

     # search hqdom.local\000
     # nameserver 10.1.1.36
     # nameserver 192.168.9.100

Enter your system's host name (2 to 63 characters):

      # echo DebianHostName > /etc/hostname

If you have multiple network cards, you should arrange the names of driver modules in the /etc/modules file into the desired order. Then during boot, each card will be associated with the interface name (eth0, eth1, etc.) that you expect.


3.7.5.4 Configure Timezone, Users, and APT

Set your timezone, add a normal user, and choose your apt sources by running

      # /usr/sbin/base-config

3.7.5.5 Configure Locales

To configure your locale settings to use a language other than English, install the locales support package and configure it:

      # apt-get install locales
      # dpkg-reconfigure locales

NOTE: Apt must be configured before, ie. during the base-config phase. Before using locales with character sets other than ASCII or latin1, please consult the appropriate localisation HOWTO.


3.7.6 Install a Kernel

If you intend to boot this system, you probably want a Linux kernel and a boot loader. Identify available pre-packaged kernels with

      # apt-cache search kernel-image

Then install your choice using its package name.

      # apt-get install kernel-image-2.X.X-arch-etc

3.7.7 Set up the Boot Loader

To make your Debian GNU/Linux system bootable, set up your boot loader to load the installed kernel with your new root partition.


3.8 Pre-Installation Hardware and Operating System Setup

This section will walk you through pre-installation hardware setup, if any, that you will need to do prior to installing Debian. Generally, this involves checking and possibly changing firmware settings for your system. The ``firmware'' is the core software used by the hardware; it is most critically invoked during the bootstrap process (after power-up). Known hardware issues affecting the reliability of Debian GNU/Linux on your system are also highlighted.

In order to install Debian GNU/Linux on a S/390 or zSeries machine you have first boot a kernel into the system. The boot mechanism of this platform is inherently different to other ones, especially from PC-like systems: there are no floppy devices available at all. Based on historical grounds, however, the software package assisting you in this process has yet the name boot-floppies do not let you fool by that. You will notice an other big difference while you work with this platform: most (if not all) of the time you will work remote, with the help of some client session software like telnet, or a browser. This is due to that special system architecture where the 3215/3270 console is line-based instead of character-based.

Linux on this platform runs either natively on the bare machine, in a so-called LPAR (Logical Partition) or in a virtual machine supplied by the VM system. You can use a boot tape on all of those systems; you may use some other boot media, too, but those may not be generally available. For example, you can use the virtual card reader of a virtual machine, or boot from the HMC (Hardware Management Console) of an LPAR if the HMC and this option is available for you.

Before you actually perform an installation, you have to go over some design and preparation steps. IBM has made documentation available about the whole process, e.g. how to prepare an installation medium and how actually boot from that medium. Duplicating that information here is neither possible nor necessary. However, we will describe here which kind of Debian-specific data is needed and where do you find them. Based on both sources of information you have to prepare your machine and the installation medium and to perform a boot from it. When you see the welcome message in your client session join this document again for the Debian-specific installation steps.


3.8.1 Native and LPAR installations

Please refer to chapter 5 of the Linux for S/390 Redbook and chapter 3.2 of the Linux for IBM eServer zSeries and S/390: Distributions Redbook on how to set up an LPAR for Linux.


3.8.2 Installation as a VM guest

Please refer to chapter 6 of the Linux for S/390 Redbook and chapter 3.1 of the Linux for IBM eServer zSeries and S/390: Distributions Redbook on how to set up a VM guest for running Linux.

You need to copy all the files from the vmrdr sub-directory to your CMS disk. Be sure to transfer kernel.debian and initrd.debian in binary mode with a fixed record length of 80 characters.


3.8.3 Setting up an installation server

If you don't have a connection to the Internet (either directly or via a web proxy) you need to create a local installation server that can be accessed from your S/390. This server keeps all the packages you want to install and must make them available using NFS, HTTP or FTP.

The installation server needs to copy the exact directory structure from any Debian GNU/Linux mirror but of only the s390 and architecture-independent files are required. You can also copy the contents of all installation CDs into such a directory tree.

FIXME: more information needed - from a Redbook?


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Installing Debian GNU/Linux 3.0 For S/390

version 3.0.24, 18 December, 2002

Bruce Perens
Sven Rudolph
Igor Grobman
James Treacy
Adam Di Carlo