Debian on CD

Verifying authenticity of Debian CDs

Official releases of Debian CDs come with signed checksum files. These allow you to check that the images you download are correct. First of all, the checksum can be used to check that the CDs have not been corrupted during download. Secondly, the signatures on the checksum files allow you to confirm that the files are the ones officially released by the Debian CD / Debian Live team and have not been tampered with.

To validate the contents of a CD image, just be sure to use the appropriate checksum tool. For older archived CD releases, only MD5 checksums were generated in the MD5SUMS files; you should use the tool md5sum to work with these. For newer releases, newer and cryptographically stronger checksum algorithms (SHA1, SHA256 and SHA512) are used, and there are equivalent tools available to work with these.

To ensure that the checksums files themselves are correct, use GnuPG to verify them against the accompanying signature files (e.g. MD5SSUMS.sign). The keys used for these signatures are all in the Debian GPG keyring and the best way to check them is to use that keyring to validate via the web of trust. To make life easier for users, here are the fingerprints for the keys that have been used for releases in recent years (with some UIDs removed for clarity):

pub   1024D/88C7C1F7 1999-01-30
      Key fingerprint = AC65 6D79 E362 32CF 77BB  B0E8 7C3B 7970 88C7 C1F7
uid                  Steve McIntyre <>
uid                  Debian CD signing key <>

pub   1024D/F6A32A8E 2000-09-16
      Key fingerprint = 3F0A 12FC 0B55 A917 D791  82D3 72FD C205 F6A3 2A8E
uid                  Santiago Garcia Mantinan (manty) <>
sub   1024g/8D0EB704 2000-09-16

pub   1024D/4B2B2B9E 2004-06-20
      Key fingerprint = 709F 54E4 ECF3 1956 2332  6AE3 F82E 5CC0 4B2B 2B9E
uid                  Daniel Baumann <>
sub   1024g/19ED1B2F 2004-06-20

pub   4096R/5CEE3195 2009-05-21
      Key fingerprint = D2FB 633A DDC2 0485 CBCE  6D12 39BE 2D72 5CEE 3195
uid                  Daniel Baumann <>
sub   4096R/E7D77F65 2009-05-21

pub   4096R/64E6EA7D 2009-10-03
      Key fingerprint = 1046 0DAD 7616 5AD8 1FBC  0CE9 9880 21A9 64E6 EA7D
uid                  Debian CD signing key <>

pub   4096R/6294BE9B 2011-01-05
      Key fingerprint = DF9B 9C49 EAA9 2984 3258  9D76 DA87 E80D 6294 BE9B
uid                  Debian CD signing key <>
sub   4096R/11CD9819 2011-01-05

pub   4096R/6CA7B5A6 2011-03-09
      Key fingerprint = 696F 95F0 88E4 D359 947F  7AEB 6F95 B499 6CA7 B5A6
uid                  Debian Live Signing Key <>
sub   4096R/6E7B0CD3 2011-03-09

pub   4096R/AD11CF6A 2013-05-06
      Key fingerprint = 1E4F 435C 4E9A 42B3 D9DF  BE3A 510A D6B9 AD11 CF6A
uid                  Debian Live Signing Key (2013) <>
sub   4096R/B72E3E00 2013-05-06

pub   4096R/A9B26DF5 2014-01-03
      Key fingerprint = 8A36 A2E8 91A5 C2A9 0DEB  7A8B 1239 00F2 A9B2 6DF5
uid                  Live Systems Project <>
sub   4096R/D0125917 2014-01-03

pub   4096R/09EA8AC3 2014-04-15
      Key fingerprint = F41D 3034 2F35 4669 5F65  C669 4246 8F40 09EA 8AC3
uid                  Debian Testing CDs Automatic Signing Key <>
sub   4096R/6BD05CFB 2014-04-15

Official role keys have gradually replaced the use of personal keys belonging to developers. However, a decision was made not to go back and re-sign all the old releases that were already signed using the older keys.