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第 3 章 分析当前设置与迁移

3.1. 在异构环境中共存
3.1.1. 和Windows机器整合
3.1.2. 和OS X机器整合
3.1.3. Integration with Other Linux/Unix Machines
3.2. How To Migrate
3.2.1. Survey and Identify Services
3.2.2. Backing up the Configuration
3.2.3. Taking Over an Existing Debian Server
3.2.4. Installing Debian
3.2.5. Installing and Configuring the Selected Services
任何系统的彻底修检都应考虑到已有的系统。其中包括让尽可能多的资源复用,和保证组成系统的各个部分协调无碍。以下的学习案列会介绍一个将设备向 Linux 迁移的通用技术框架。

3.1. 在异构环境中共存

Debian能和已存的环境整合无碍,并和其他操作系统共存。这近乎完美的和谐来自市场的压力:市场要求软件发布者需要遵从一定的标准。接受这些标准让管理员能灵活替换各种程序,客户端或服务端,免费与否,都不是问题。

3.1.1. 和Windows机器整合

Samba提供的SMB/CIFS支持确保了在Windows占多数的场景下也能无缝通信。它可以将文件和打印队列分享给Windows客户端,并包含了一些软件,使得Linux机器也能使用Windows服务器所提供的服务。

3.1.2. 和OS X机器整合

OS X machines provide, and are able to use, network services such as file servers and printer sharing. These services are published on the local network, which allows other machines to discover them and make use of them without any manual configuration, using the Bonjour implementation of the Zeroconf protocol suite. Debian includes another implementation, called Avahi, which provides the same functionality.
In the other direction, the Netatalk daemon can be used to provide file servers to OS X machines on the network. It implements the AFP (AppleShare) protocol as well as the required notifications so that the servers can be autodiscovered by the OS X clients.
Older Mac OS networks (before OS X) used a different protocol called AppleTalk. For environments involving machines using this protocol, Netatalk also provides the AppleTalk protocol (in fact, it started as a reimplementation of that protocol). It ensures the operation of the file server and print queues, as well as time server (clock synchronization). Its router function allows interconnection with AppleTalk networks.

3.1.3. Integration with Other Linux/Unix Machines

Finally, NFS and NIS, both included, guarantee interaction with Unix systems. NFS ensures file server functionality, while NIS creates user directories. The BSD printing layer, used by most Unix systems, also allows sharing of print queues.
Coexistence of Debian with OS X, Windows and Unix systems

图 3.1. Coexistence of Debian with OS X, Windows and Unix systems