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第 3 章 分析当前设置与迁移

3.1. 在异构环境中共存
3.1.1. 和Windows机器整合
3.1.2. Integration with macOS machines
3.1.3. 与其他 Linux/Unix 设备集成
3.2. 如何迁移
3.2.1. 流行度调查和身份识别服务
3.2.2. 备份配置
3.2.3. 接手现有的 Debian 服务器
3.2.4. 安装 Debian
3.2.5. 安装与配置选定的服务
任何系统的彻底修检都应考虑到已有的系统。其中包括让尽可能多的资源复用,和保证组成系统的各个部分协调无碍。以下的学习案列会介绍一个将设备向 Linux 迁移的通用技术框架。

3.1. 在异构环境中共存


3.1.1. 和Windows机器整合

Samba's SMB/CIFS support ensures excellent communication within a Windows context. It shares files and print queues to Windows clients and includes software that allows a Linux machine to use resources available on Windows servers.

3.1.2. Integration with macOS machines

macOS machines provide, and are able to use, network services such as file servers and printer sharing. These services are published on the local network, which allows other machines to discover them and make use of them without any manual configuration, using the Bonjour implementation of the Zeroconf protocol suite. Debian includes another implementation, called Avahi, which provides the same functionality.
In the other direction, the Netatalk daemon can be used to provide file servers to macOS machines on the network. It implements the AFP protocol (Apple Filing Protocol, now AppleShare) as well as the required notifications so that the servers can be automatically discovered by the macOS clients.
OS X 之前的系统使用称为 AppleTalk 的协议。为了兼容使用此等协议的环境,Netatalk 也能提供 AppleTalk 协议 (实际上,是重实现该协议)。确保文件服务器、打印队列以及时间服务器 (时钟同步)的运作。它的路由器被设计允许与 AppleTalk 网络互联。

3.1.3. 与其他 Linux/Unix 设备集成

Finally, NFS (Network File System) and NIS (Network Information Service), both included, guarantee interaction with Unix systems. NFS ensures file server functionality, while NIS creates user directories. The BSD printing layer, used by most Unix systems, also allows sharing of print queues.
Debian 与 OS X,Windows,Unix 系统的共存

图 3.1. Debian 与 OS X,Windows,Unix 系统的共存