Capítulo 2. Las novedades de Debian 12

Tabla de contenidos

2.1. Arquitecturas soportadas
2.2. Archive areas
2.3. ¿Qué novedades hay en la distribución?
2.3.1. Entornos de escritorio y paquetes conocidos
2.3.2. More translated man pages
2.3.3. Noticias de la mezcla Debian Med
2.3.4. News from Debian Astro Blend

Hay más información disponible sobre este tema en el Wiki.

2.1. Arquitecturas soportadas

Las siguientes son las arquitecturas oficialmente soportadas en Debian 12:

  • PC de 32 bits (i386) y PC de 64 bits (amd64)

  • ARM de 64 bits (arm64)

  • ARM EABI (armel)

  • ARMv7 (EABI hard-float ABI, armhf)

  • MIPS «little-endian» (mips64el)

  • MIPS «little-endian» de 64 bits (mips64el)

  • PowerPC «little-endian» de 64 bits (ppc64el)

  • IBM System z (s390x)

Baseline bump for 32-bit PC to i686

The 32-bit PC support (known as the Debian architecture i386) now requires the "long NOP" instruction. Please refer to Sección 5.1.13, “ Baseline for 32-bit PC is now i686 for more information.

Puede leer más acerca del estado y la información específica de las adaptaciones para su arquitectura en la página web de las adaptaciones de Debian.

2.2. Archive areas

The following archive areas, mentioned in the Social Contract and in the Debian Policy, have been around for a long time:

  • main: the Debian distribution;

  • contrib: supplemental packages intended to work with the Debian distribution, but which require software outside of the distribution to either build or function;

  • non-free: supplemental packages intended to work with the Debian distribution that do not comply with the DFSG or have other problems that make their distribution problematic.

Following the 2022 General Resolution about non-free firmware, the 5th point of the Social Contract was extended with the following sentence:

The Debian official media may include firmware that is otherwise not part of the Debian system to enable use of Debian with hardware that requires such firmware.

While it's not mentioned explicitly in either the Social Contract or Debian Policy yet, a new archive area was introduced, making it possible to separate non-free firmware from the other non-free packages:

  • non-free-firmware

Most non-free firmware packages have been moved from non-free to non-free-firmware in preparation for the Debian 12 release. This clean separation makes it possible to build official installation images with packages from main and from non-free-firmware, without contrib or non-free. In turn, these installation images make it possible to install systems with only main and non-free-firmware, without contrib or non-free.

See Sección 4.2.8, “The non-free and non-free-firmware components” for upgrades from bullseye.

2.3. ¿Qué novedades hay en la distribución?

Esta nueva versión de Debian trae de nuevo muchos más programas que su predecesora bullseye; la distribución incluye más de 11089 paquetes nuevos, para un total de más de 64419 paquetes. La mayor parte de los programas que se distribuyen se han actualizado: más de 43254 paquetes de programas (corresponde a un 67% de los paquetes en bullseye). También se han eliminado por varios motivos un número significativo de paquetes (más de 6296, 10% de los paquetes en bullseye). No verá ninguna actualización para estos paquetes y se marcarán como «obsoletos» en los programas de gestión de paquetes. Consulte la sección Sección 4.8, “Paquetes obsoletos”.

2.3.1. Entornos de escritorio y paquetes conocidos

Debian again ships with several desktop applications and environments. Among others it now includes the desktop environments GNOME 43, KDE Plasma 5.27, LXDE 11, LXQt 1.2.0, MATE 1.26, and Xfce 4.18.

También se han actualizado las aplicaciones de productividad, incluyendo las suites de oficina:

  • LibreOffice is upgraded to version 7.4;

  • GNUcash is upgraded to 4.13;

Esta versión, entre muchas otras cosas, incluye las siguientes actualizaciones:

PaqueteVersión en 11 (bullseye)Versión en 12 (bookworm)
BIND Servidor DNS9.169.18
Exim servidor de correo predeterminado4.944.96
La colección de compilador GNU como el compilador por omisión10.212.2
La biblioteca de C de GNU2.312.36
imagen del núcleo de Linuxserie 5.106.1 series
LLVM/Clang toolchain9.0.1 and 11.0.1 (default) and and 14.0 (default) and 15.0.6
Postfix MTA3.53.7

2.3.2. More translated man pages

Thanks to our translators, more documentation in man-page format is available in more languages than ever. For example, many man pages are now available in Czech, Danish, Greek, Finnish, Indonesian, Macedonian, Norwegian (Bokmål), Russian, Serbian, Swedish, Ukrainian and Vietnamese, and all systemd man pages are now available in German.

To ensure the man command shows the documentation in your language (where possible), install the right manpages-lang package and make sure your locale is correctly configured by using

dpkg-reconfigure locales


2.3.3. Noticias de la mezcla Debian Med

As in every release new packages have been added in the fields of medicine and life sciences. The new package shiny-server might be worth a particular mention, since it simplifies scientific web applications using R. We also kept up the effort to provide Continuous Integration support for the packages maintained by the Debian Med team.

The Debian Med team is always interested in feedback from users, especially in the form of requests for packaging of not-yet-packaged free software, or for backports from new packages or higher versions in testing.

To install packages maintained by the Debian Med team, install the metapackages named med-*, which are at version 3.8.x for Debian bookworm. Feel free to visit the Debian Med tasks pages to see the full range of biological and medical software available in Debian.

2.3.4. News from Debian Astro Blend

Debian bookworm comes with version 4.0 of the Debian Astro Pure Blend, which continues to represent a great one-stop solution for professional astronomers, enthusiasts and everyone who is interested in astronomy. Almost all packages in Debian Astro were updated to new versions, but there are also several new software packages.

For radio astronomers, the open source correlator openvlbi is now included. The new packages astap and planetary-system-stacker are useful for image stacking and astrometry resolution. A large number of new drivers and libraries supporting the INDI protocol were packaged and are now shipped with Debian.

The new Astropy affiliated packages python3-extinction, python3-sncosmo, python3-specreduce, and python3-synphot are included, as well as packages created around python3-yt and python3-sunpy. Python support for the ASDF file format is much extended, while the Java ecosystem is extended with libraries handling the ECSV and TFCAT file formats, primarily for use with topcat.

Check the Astro Blend page for a complete list and further information.