Cap. 2. Noutăți în Debian 12


2.1. Arhitecturi suportate
2.2. Archive areas
2.3. Noutăți în distribuție
2.3.1. Desktops and well known packages
2.3.2. More translated man pages
2.3.3. Noutăți de la Blend-ul Debian Med
2.3.4. News from Debian Astro Blend

Pagina Wiki are mai multe informații despre acest subiect.

2.1. Arhitecturi suportate

Următoarele arhitecturi sunt suportate oficial în Debian 12:

  • PC pe 32 de biți (i386) și PC pe 64 de biți (amd64)

  • ARM pe 64 de biți (arm64)

  • ARM EABI (armel)

  • ARMv7 (EABI hard-float ABI, armhf)

  • little-endian MIPS (mipsel)

  • MIPS little-endian pe 64 de biți (mips64el)

  • PowerPC little-endian pe 64 de biți (ppc64el)

  • IBM System z (s390x)

Puteți să citiți mai multe despre starea portărilor și să aflați detalii specifice arhitecturii dumneavoastră din paginile web ale portărilor Debian.

2.2. Archive areas

The following archive areas, mentioned in the Social Contract and in the Debian Policy, have been around for a long time:

  • main: the Debian distribution;

  • contrib: supplemental packages intended to work with the Debian distribution, but which require software outside of the distribution to either build or function;

  • non-free: supplemental packages intended to work with the Debian distribution that do not comply with the DFSG or have other problems that make their distribution problematic.

Following the 2022 General Resolution about non-free firmware, the 5th point of the Social Contract was extended with the following sentence:

The Debian official media may include firmware that is otherwise not part of the Debian system to enable use of Debian with hardware that requires such firmware.

While it's not mentioned explicitly in either the Social Contract or Debian Policy yet, a new archive area was introduced, making it possible to separate non-free firmware from the other non-free packages:

  • non-free-firmware

Most non-free firmware packages have been moved from non-free to non-free-firmware in preparation for the Debian 12 release. This clean separation makes it possible to build official installation images with packages from main and from non-free-firmware, without contrib or non-free. In turn, these installation images make it possible to install systems with only main and non-free-firmware, without contrib or non-free.

See Secțiune 4.2.8, „The non-free and non-free-firmware components” for upgrades from bullseye.

2.3. Noutăți în distribuție

Această nouă versiune Debian aduce din nou mult mai mult software decât versiunea precedentă, bullseye. Distribuția include peste 11089 de pachete noi, ajungând la un total de peste 64419 de pachete. Mare parte din software-ul din distribuție a fost actualizat: peste 43254 de pachete software (adică 67% din numărul de pachete din bullseye). De asemenea, din diverse motive, un număr semnificativ de pachete (peste 6296, 10% din pachetele din bullseye) au fost scoase din distribuție. Pentru aceste pachete nu veți mai vedea actualizări, acestea fiind marcate ca „învechite” în interfețele de administrare a pachetelor. Consultați Secțiune 4.8, „Pachete învechite”.

2.3.1. Desktops and well known packages

Debian again ships with several desktop applications and environments. Among others it now includes the desktop environments GNOME 43, KDE Plasma 5.27, LXDE 11, LXQt 1.2.0, MATE 1.26, and Xfce 4.18.

Aplicațiile de productivitate au fost de asemenea actualizate, inclusiv suitele de birou:

  • LibreOffice is upgraded to version 7.4;

  • GNUcash is upgraded to 4.13;

Această versiune conține, printre multe altele, și următoarele actualizări:

PachetVersiunea în 11 (bullseye)Versiunea în 12 (bookworm)
Serverul DNS BIND9.169.18
Serverul implicit de poștă electronică Exim4.944.96
GNU Compiler Collection drept compilator implicit10.212.2
biblioteca GNU C2.312.36
Imagine de nucleu Linux5.10 series6.1 series
Ansamblul de unelte LLVM/Clang9.0.1 and 11.0.1 (default) and and 14.0 (default) and 15.0.6
Postfix MTA3.53.7

2.3.2. More translated man pages

Thanks to our translators, more documentation in man-page format is available in more languages than ever. For example, many man pages are now available in Czech, Danish, Greek, Finnish, Indonesian, Macedonian, Norwegian (Bokmål), Russian, Serbian, Swedish, Ukrainian and Vietnamese, and all systemd man pages are now available in German.

To ensure the man command shows the documentation in your language (where possible), install the right manpages-lang package and make sure your locale is correctly configured by using

dpkg-reconfigure locales


2.3.3. Noutăți de la Blend-ul Debian Med

As in every release new packages have been added in the fields of medicine and life sciences. The new package shiny-server might be worth a particular mention, since it simplifies scientific web applications using R. We also kept up the effort to provide Continuous Integration support for the packages maintained by the Debian Med team.

The Debian Med team is always interested in feedback from users, especially in the form of requests for packaging of not-yet-packaged free software, or for backports from new packages or higher versions in testing.

To install packages maintained by the Debian Med team, install the metapackages named med-*, which are at version 3.8.x for Debian bookworm. Feel free to visit the Debian Med tasks pages to see the full range of biological and medical software available in Debian.

2.3.4. News from Debian Astro Blend

Debian bookworm comes with version 4.0 of the Debian Astro Pure Blend, which continues to represent a great one-stop solution for professional astronomers, enthusiasts and everyone who is interested in astronomy. Almost all packages in Debian Astro were updated to new versions, but there are also several new software packages.

For radio astronomers, the open source correlator openvlbi is now included. The new packages astap and planetary-system-stacker are useful for image stacking and astrometry resolution. A large number of new drivers and libraries supporting the INDI protocol were packaged and are now shipped with Debian.

The new Astropy affiliated packages python3-extinction, python3-sncosmo, python3-specreduce, and python3-synphot are included, as well as packages created around python3-yt and python3-sunpy. Python support for the ASDF file format is much extended, while the Java ecosystem is extended with libraries handling the ECSV and TFCAT file formats, primarily for use with topcat.

Check the Astro Blend page for a complete list and further information.