Kapitel 2. Nyt i Debian 11


2.1. Understøttede arkitekturer
2.2. Nyt i distributionen
2.2.1. Desktops and well known packages
2.2.2. Driverless scanning and printing
2.2.3. New generic open command
2.2.4. Control groups v2
2.2.5. Persistent systemd journal
2.2.6. News from Debian Med Blend

The Wiki has more information about this topic.

2.1. Understøttede arkitekturer

Følgende er de officielt understøttede arkitekturer i Debian 11:

  • 32-bit pc (i386) og 64-bit pc (amd64)

  • 64-bit ARM (arm64)

  • ARM EABI (armel)

  • ARMv7 (EABI hard-float ABI, armhf)

  • little-endian MIPS (mipsel)

  • 64-bit little-endian MIPS (mips64el)

  • 64-bit little-endian PowerPC (ppc64el)

  • IBM System z (s390x)

Du kan læse mere om porteringsstatus og porteringsspecifik information om din arkitektur på Debians websider om porteringer.

2.2. Nyt i distributionen

Denne nye udgave af Debian leveres med mange flere programmer end dens forgænger buster. Distributionen indeholder over 13370 nye pakker, og i alt 57703 pakker. De fleste programmer i distributionen er blevet opdateret: over 35532 softwarepakker (dette svarer til 62 % af alle pakker i buster). Et betydeligt antal pakker (over 7278, 13 % af alle pakker i buster) er af forskellige grunde blevet fjernet fra distributionen. Du vil ikke se opdateringer for disse pakker, og de markeres »forældet« i pakkehåndteringsprogrammer; se Afsnit 4.8, “Forældede pakker”.

2.2.1. Desktops and well known packages

Debian again ships with several desktop applications and environments. Among others it now includes the desktop environments GNOME 3.38, KDE Plasma 5.20, LXDE 11, LXQt 0.16, MATE 1.24, and Xfce 4.16.

Produktivitetsprogrammer er også blevet opgraderet, inklusive kontorpakkerne:

  • LibreOffice is upgraded to version 7.0;

  • Calligra is upgraded to 3.2.

  • GNUcash is upgraded to 4.4;

Blandt meget andet inkluderer denne udgave følgende opdateringer:

PakkerVersion i 10 (buster)Version i 11 (bullseye)
BIND DNS-server9.119.16
Dovecot MTA2.
Exim som standard-e-postserver4.924.94
GNU Compiler Collection som standardcompiler8.310.2
GNU C-programbiblioteket2.282.31
Linux-kerneaftryk4.19 series5.10 series
LLVM/Clang toolchain6.0.1 and 7.0.1 (default)9.0.1 and 11.0.1 (default)
Postfix MTA3.43.5
Rustc1.41 (1.34 for armel)1.48

2.2.2. Driverless scanning and printing

Both printing with CUPS and scanning with SANE are increasingly likely to be possible without the need for any driver (often non-free) specific to the model of the hardware, especially in the case of devices marketed in the past five years or so. CUPS and driverless printing

Modern printers connected by ethernet or wireless can already use driverless printing, implemented via CUPS and cups-filters, as was described in the Release Notes for buster. Debian 11 bullseye brings the new package ipp-usb, which is recommended by cups-daemon and uses the vendor-neutral IPP-over-USB protocol supported by many modern printers. This allows a USB device to be treated as a network device, extending driverless printing to include USB-connected printers. The specifics are outlined on the wiki.

The systemd service file included in the ipp-usb package starts the ipp-usb daemon when a USB-connected printer is plugged in, thus making it available to print to. By default cups-browsed should configure it automatically, or it can be manually set up with a local driverless print queue. SANE and driverless scanning

The official SANE driverless backend is provided by sane-escl in libsane1. An independently developed driverless backend is sane-airscan. Both backends understand the eSCL protocol but sane-airscan can also use the WSD protocol. Users should consider having both backends on their systems.

eSCL and WSD are network protocols. Consequently they will operate over a USB connection if the device is an IPP-over-USB device (see above). Note that libsane1 has ipp-usb as a recommended package. This leads to a suitable device being automatically set up to use a driverless backend driver when it is connected to a USB port.

2.2.3. New generic open command

A new open command is available as a convenience alias to xdg-open (by default) or run-mailcap, managed by the update-alternatives(1) system. It is intended for interactive use at the command line, to open files with their default application, which can be a graphical program when available.

2.2.4. Control groups v2

In bullseye, systemd defaults to using control groups v2 (cgroupv2), which provides a unified resource-control hierarchy. Kernel commandline parameters are available to re-enable the legacy cgroups if necessary; see the notes for OpenStack in Afsnit 5.1.9, “OpenStack and cgroups v1” section.

2.2.5. Persistent systemd journal

Systemd in bullseye activates its persistent journal functionality by default, storing its files in /var/log/journal/. See systemd-journald.service(8) for details; note that on Debian the journal is readable for members of adm, in addition to the default systemd-journal group.

This should not interfere with any existing traditional logging daemon such as rsyslog, but users who are not relying on special features of such a daemon may wish to uninstall it and switch over to using only the journal.

2.2.6. News from Debian Med Blend

The Debian Med team has been taking part in the fight against COVID-19 by packaging software for researching the virus on the sequence level and for fighting the pandemic with the tools used in epidemiology. The effort will be continued in the next release cycle with focus on machine learning tools that are used in both fields.

Besides the addition of new packages in the field of life sciences and medicine, more and more existing packages have gained Continuous Integration support.

A range of performance critical applications now benefit from SIMD Everywhere. This library allows packages to be available on more hardware platforms supported by Debian (notably on arm64) while maintaining the performance benefit brought by processors supporting vector extensions, such as AVX on amd64, or NEON on arm64.

To install packages maintained by the Debian Med team, install the metapackages named med-*, which are at version 3.6.x for Debian bullseye. Feel free to visit the Debian Med tasks pages to see the full range of biological and medical software available in Debian.