Глава 3. Система установки

Содержание

3.1. Что нового в системе установки?
3.1.1. Help with installation of firmware
3.1.2. Автоматизированная установка
3.2. Cloud installations
3.3. Container and Virtual Machine images

Debian Installer (программа установки) является официальной системой установки Debian. Она предлагает широкий выбор методов установки. Список доступных методов зависит от архитектуры компьютера.

Образы программы установки для bullseye и руководство по установке можно найти на веб-сайте Debian.

The Installation Guide is also included on the first media of the official Debian DVD (CD/blu-ray) sets, at:

/doc/install/manual/ru/index.html

Также следует ознакомиться со списком известных ошибок программы установки.

3.1. Что нового в системе установки?

There has been a lot of development on the Debian Installer since its previous official release with Debian 10, resulting in improved hardware support and some exciting new features or improvements.

If you are interested in an overview of the detailed changes since buster, please check the release announcements for the bullseye beta and RC releases available from the Debian Installer's news history.

3.1.1. Help with installation of firmware

More and more, peripheral devices require firmware to be loaded as part of the hardware initialization. To help deal with this problem, the installer has a new feature. If some of the installed hardware requires firmware files to be installed, the installer will try to add them to the system, based on a mapping from hardware ID to firmware file names.

This new functionality is restricted to the unofficial installer images with firmware included (see https://www.debian.org/releases/bullseye/debian-installer/#firmware_nonfree). The firmware is usually not DFSG compliant, so it is not possible to distribute it in Debian's main repository.

If you experience problems related to (missing) firmware, please read the dedicated chapter of the installation-guide.

3.1.2. Автоматизированная установка

Some changes also imply changes in the support in the installer for automated installation using preconfiguration files. This means that if you have existing preconfiguration files that worked with the buster installer, you cannot expect these to work with the new installer without modification.

В руководстве по установке теперь есть отдельное приложение, в котором подробно описывается использование автоматизированной настройки.

3.2. Cloud installations

The cloud team publishes Debian bullseye for several popular cloud computing services including:

  • OpenStack

  • Amazon Web Services

  • Microsoft Azure

Cloud images provide automation hooks via cloud-init and prioritize fast instance startup using specifically optimized kernel packages and grub configurations. Images supporting different architectures are provided where appropriate and the cloud team endeavors to support all features offered by the cloud service.

The cloud team will provide updated images until the end of the LTS period for bullseye. New images are typically released for each point release and after security fixes for critical packages. The cloud team's full support policy can be found here.

More details are available at cloud.debian.org and on the wiki.

3.3. Container and Virtual Machine images

Multi-architecture Debian bullseye container images are available on Docker Hub. In addition to the standard images, a «slim» variant is available that reduces disk usage.

Virtual machine images for the Hashicorp Vagrant VM manager are published to Vagrant Cloud.