4.3. 为从 U 盘引导准备文件

为了准备 U 盘,您需要一台运行的支持 USB 的 GNU/Linux 系统。当前的 GNU/Linux 系统会在您插入 U 盘的时候自动识别。如果没有,您应该确认 usb-storage 内核模块是否已经被加载。U 盘插入后,它将被映射到名为 /dev/sdX 的设备,其中的 X 是 a-z 的字母。您可以通过运行 dmesg 在插入 U 盘后确认是否被正确映射。要写入信息,请要先打开它上面的写保护开关。

[警告] 警告

采用这种方法将销毁设备上已有的任何内容!请确认您使用了正确的 U 盘设备名。如果搞错,比如写成硬盘,将造成该设备上的所有信息丢失。

4.3.1. 使用混合 CD 或 DVD 映像制作 U 盘

Debian CD and DVD images can now be written directly to a USB stick, which is a very easy way to make a bootable USB stick. Simply choose a CD or DVD image (such as the netinst, CD-1, DVD-1, or netboot) that will fit on your USB stick. See 第 4.1 节 “官方的 Debian GNU/Linux CD/DVD 光盘套装” to get a CD or DVD image.

另外,对于只有几 M 的小容量 U 盘,您可以从 netboot 目录下载 mini.iso 映像(位于 第 4.2.1 节 “在哪里能找到安装映像”)。

The CD or DVD image you choose should be written directly to the USB stick, overwriting its current contents. For example, when using an existing GNU/Linux system, the CD or DVD image file can be written to a USB stick as follows, after having made sure that the stick is unmounted:

# cp debian.iso /dev/sdX
# sync

Information about how to do this on other operating systems can be found in the Debian CD FAQ.

[重要] 重要

The image must be written to the whole-disk device and not a partition, e.g. /dev/sdb and not /dev/sdb1. Do not use tools like unetbootin which alter the image.

[重要] 重要

对大多数用户来说,简单地把 CD 或 DVD 映像写入 U 盘已经够用。下面更为复杂的选项主要提供给有特殊需要的用户。

The hybrid image on the stick does not occupy all the storage space, so it may be worth considering using the free space to hold firmware files or packages or any other files of your choice. This could be useful if you have only one stick or just want to keep everything you need on one device.

Create a second, FAT partition on the stick, mount the partition and copy or unpack the firmware onto it. For example:

# mount /dev/sdX2 /mnt
# cd /mnt
# tar zxvf /path/to/firmware.tar.gz
# cd /
# umount /mnt

You might have written the mini.iso to the USB stick. In this case the second partition doesn't have to be created as, very nicely, it will already be present. Unplugging and replugging the USB stick should make the two partitions visible.

4.3.2. 手动复制文件到 U 盘。

另一种方法制作 U 盘是手动复制安装文件和 CD 映像。注意 U 盘最小容量为 1 GB (也可以使用较少容量,请参考 第 4.3.3 节 “手动复制文件到 U 盘 — 灵活的方法”)。

有一个文件合集 hd-media/boot.img.gz 包含所有的安装程序文件(包括内核) 。

需要注意的是,虽然方便,但该方法有一个主要缺点:即使 U 盘容量更大,该设备的逻辑尺寸还是限制在 1 GB。如果您要该 U 盘作其他用途,需要为它重新分区,为剩余容量创建一个新的文件系统。

然后,挂载 U 盘 现在上面有了 ,然后复制 Debian ISO 映像 (netinst 或完整的 CD) 到里面。卸载 U 盘 (umount /mnt) 就完成了。

4.3.3. 手动复制文件到 U 盘 — 灵活的方法

If you like more flexibility or just want to know what's going on, you should use the following method to put the files on your stick. One advantage of using this method is that — if the capacity of your USB stick is large enough — you have the option of copying any ISO image, even a DVD image, to it.