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1.3. The Inner Workings of the Debian Project

The abundant end results produced by the Debian project derive simultaneously from the work on the infrastructure performed by experienced Debian developers, from the individual or collective work of developers on Debian packages, and from user feedback.

1.3.1. The Debian Developers

Debian developers have various responsibilities, and as official project members, they have great influence on the direction the project takes. A Debian developer is generally responsible for at least one package, but according to their available time and desire, they are free to become involved in numerous teams, acquiring, thus, more responsibilities within the project.
Package maintenance is a relatively regimented activity, very documented or even regulated. It must, in effect, comply with all the standards established by the Debian Policy. Fortunately, there are many tools that facilitate the maintainer's work. The developer can, thus, focus on the specifics of their package and on more complex tasks, such as squashing bugs.
The Policy, an essential element of the Debian Project, establishes the norms ensuring both the quality of the packages and perfect interoperability of the distribution. Thanks to this Policy, Debian remains consistent despite its gigantic size. This Policy is not fixed in stone, but continuously evolves thanks to proposals formulated on the mailing list. Amendments that are agreed upon by all interested parties are accepted and applied to the text by a small group of maintainers who have no editorial responsibility (they only include the modifications agreed upon by the Debian developers that are members of the above-mentioned list). You can read current amendment proposals on the bug tracking system:
The Policy provides considerable cover of the technical aspects of packaging. The size of the project also raises organizational problems; these are dealt with by the Debian Constitution, which establishes a structure and means for decision making. In other words, a formal governance system.
Debian 宪章定义了一些角色和职位,以及各自的职责和权力。值得特别指出的是,通过投票决议,Debian 开发者们总是拥有最终的决定权。对于重大的修改(例如会对基金会文档产生影响的),只有当有效票数超过四分之三(75%)时,才会通过。然而,开发者们每年都会选举一位“领导人”作为他们的会议代表,同时领导人也会在内部的各个团队协调沟通。这一选举总是伴随着一段紧张激烈的讨论过程。领导人的角色并没有在任何官方文件内被定义:参选的候选人常常会提出自己对于该职位的理解和定位。在实际工作中,领导人角色包括媒体发言人,协调内部团队,对项目提供总体领导。每一位开发者都参与其中,因为大多数项目成员都认同了 Debian 项目领导人的观点。
从项目发起以来发起以来,它经过了 Ian Murdock, Bruce Perens, Ian Jackson, Wichert Akkerman, Ben Collins, Bdale Garbee, Martin Michlmayr, Branden Robinson, Anthony Towns, SamHocevar, Steve Mclntyre, Stefano Zacchiroli 和 Lucas Nussbaum 的成功领导。
宪章同样也定义了一个“技术委员会(technical committee)”。技术委员会的核心角色是对于那些在开发者之间尚未达成一致意见的技术事宜进行决策。除此以外,委员会则作为顾问角色,为任何无法为他们所负责的事宜作出决定的开发者提供帮助。值得一提的是,只有在相关问题方给委员会发送邀请时,委员会才会介入。
The “general resolution” procedure is fully detailed in the constitution, from the initial discussion period to the final counting of votes. For further details see:
Even if this constitution establishes a semblance of democracy, the daily reality is quite different: Debian naturally follows the free software rules of the do-ocracy: the one who does things gets to decide how to do them. A lot of time can be wasted debating the respective merits of various ways to approach a problem; the chosen solution will be the first one that is both functional and satisfying… which will come out of the time that a competent person did put into it.
This is the only way to earn one's stripes: do something useful and show that one has worked well. Many Debian “administrative” teams operate by co-optation, preferring volunteers who have already effectively contributed and proved their competence. The public nature of the work of those teams makes it possible for new contributors to observe and start helping without any special privilege. This is why Debian is often described as a “meritocracy”.
This effective operational method guarantees the quality of contributors in the “key” Debian teams. This method is by no means perfect and occasionally there are those who do not accept this way of operating. The selection of developers accepted in the teams may appear a bit arbitrary, or even unfair. Furthermore, not everybody has the same definition of the service expected from these teams. For some, it is unacceptable to have to wait eight days for inclusion of a new Debian package, while others will wait patiently for three weeks without a problem. As such, there are regular complaints from the disgruntled about the “quality of service” from some teams.

1.3.2. The Active Role of Users

One might wonder if it is relevant to mention the users among those who work within the Debian project, but the answer is a definite yes: they play a critical role in the project. Far from being “passive”, some users run development versions of Debian and regularly file bug reports to indicate problems. Others go even further and submit ideas for improvements, by filing a bug report with a severity level of “wishlist”, or even submit corrections to the source code, called “patches” (see sidebar BACK TO BASICS Patch, the way to send a fix).
Additionally, numerous satisfied users of the service offered by Debian like to make a contribution of their own to the project. As not everyone has appropriate levels of expertise in programming, they may choose to assist with the translation and review of documentation. There are language-specific mailing lists to coordinate this work.
All of these contribution mechanisms are made more efficient by users' behavior. Far from being a collection of isolated persons, users are a true community within which numerous exchanges take place. We especially note the impressive activity on the user discussion mailing list, (第 7 章 问题的解决与相关信息的检索 discusses this in greater detail).
Not only do users help themselves (and others) on technical issues that directly affect them, but they also discuss the best ways to contribute to the Debian project and help it move forward — discussions that frequently result in suggestions for improvements.
Since Debian does not expend funds on any self-promoting marketing campaigns, its users play an essential role in its diffusion, ensuring its fame via word-of-mouth.
This method functions quite well, since Debian fans are found at all levels of the free software community: from install parties (workshops where seasoned users assist newcomers to install the system) organized by local LUGs or “Linux User Groups”, to association booths at large tech conventions dealing with Linux, etc.
Volunteers make posters, brochures, stickers, and other useful promotional materials for the project, which they make available to everyone, and which Debian provides freely on its website:

1.3.3. Teams and Sub-Projects

Debian has been organized, right from the start, around the concept of source packages, each with its maintainer or group of maintainers. Many work teams have emerged over time, ensuring administration of the infrastructure, management of tasks not specific to any package in particular (quality assurance, Debian Policy, installer, etc.), with the latest series of teams growing up around sub-projects. Existing Debian Sub-Projects

To each their own Debian! A sub-project is a group of volunteers interested in adapting Debian to specific needs. Beyond the selection of a sub-group of programs intended for a particular domain (education, medicine, multimedia creation, etc.), sub-projects are also involved in improving existing packages, packaging missing software, adapting the installer, creating specific documentation, and more.
Here is a small selection of current sub-projects:
  • Debian-Junior, by Ben Armstrong, offering an appealing and easy to use Debian system for children;
  • Debian-Edu, by Petter Reinholdtsen, focused on the creation of a specialized distribution for the academic world;
  • Debian Med, by Andreas Tille, dedicated to the medical field;
  • Debian Multimedia which deals with audio and multimedia work;
  • Debian-Desktop which focuses on the desktop and coordinates artwork for the default theme;
  • Debian GIS which takes care of Geographical Information Systems applications and users;
  • Debian Accessibility, finally, improving Debian to match the requirements of people with disabilities.
This list will most likely continue to grow with time and improved perception of the advantages of Debian sub-projects. Fully supported by the existing Debian infrastructure, they can, in effect, focus on work with real added value, without worrying about remaining synchronized with Debian, since they are developed within the project. Administrative Teams

Most administrative teams are relatively closed and recruit only by cooptation. The best means to become a part of one is to intelligently assist the current members, demonstrating that you have understood their objectives and methods of operation.
The ftpmasters are in charge of the official archive of Debian packages. They maintain the program that receives packages sent by developers and automatically stores them, after some checks, on the reference server (
They must also verify the licenses of all new packages, in order to ensure that Debian may distribute them, prior to including them in the corpus of existing packages. When a developer wishes to remove a package, they address this team through the bug tracking system and the “pseudo-package”.
The Debian System Administrators (DSA) team (), as one might expect, is responsible for system administration of the many servers used by the project. They ensure optimal functioning of all base services (DNS, Web, e-mail, shell, etc.), install software requested by Debian developers, and take all precautions in regards to security.
The listmasters administer the e-mail server that manages the mailing lists. They create new lists, handle bounces (delivery failure notices), and maintain spam filters (unsolicited bulk e-mail).
Each specific service has its own administration team, generally composed of volunteers who have installed it (and also frequently programmed the corresponding tools themselves). This is the case of the bug tracking system (BTS), the package tracker, (FusionForge server, see sidebar TOOL FusionForge, the Swiss Army Knife of collaborative development), the services available on,,,, etc. Development Teams, Transversal Teams

Unlike administrative teams, the development teams are rather widely open, even to outside contributors. Even if Debian does not have a vocation to create software, the project needs some specific programs to meet its goals. Of course, developed under a free software license, these tools make use of methods proven elsewhere in the free software world.
Debian has developed little software of its own, but certain programs have assumed a starring role, and their fame has spread beyond the scope of the project. Good examples are dpkg, the Debian package management program (it is, in fact, an abbreviation of Debian PacKaGe, and generally pronounced as “dee-package”), and apt, a tool to automatically install any Debian package, and its dependencies, guaranteeing the consistency of the system after an upgrade (its name is an acronym for Advanced Package Tool). Their teams are, however, much smaller, since a rather high level of programming skill is required to gain an overall understanding of the operations of these types of programs.
The most important team is probably that for the Debian installation program, debian-installer, which has accomplished a work of momentous proportions since its conception in 2001. Numerous contributors were needed, since it is difficult to write a single program able to install Debian on a dozen different architectures. Each one has its own mechanism for booting and its own bootloader. All of this work is coordinated on the mailing list, under the direction of Cyril Brulebois.
The (very small) debian-cd program team has an even more modest objective. Many “small” contributors are responsible for their architecture, since the main developer can not know all the subtleties, nor the exact way to start the installer from the CD-ROM.
Many teams must collaborate with others in the activity of packaging: tries, for example, to ensure quality at all levels of the Debian project. The list develops Debian Policy according to proposals from all over the place. The teams in charge of each architecture () compile all packages, adapting them to their particular architecture, if needed.
Other teams manage the most important packages in order to ensure maintenance without placing too heavy a load on a single pair of shoulders; this is the case with the C library and , the C compiler on the list, or Xorg on the (this group is also known as the X Strike Force).