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第 13 章 工作站

13.1. 配置 X11 服务
13.2. 定制图形界面
13.2.1. 选择显示管理器
13.2.2. 选择窗口管理器
13.2.3. 菜单管理
13.3. 图形桌面
13.3.1. GNOME
13.3.2. KDE
13.3.3. Xfce 和其他
13.4. 邮件
13.4.1. Evolution
13.4.2. KMail
13.4.3. Thunderbird 和 Icedove
13.5. 网页浏览器
13.6. 开发
13.6.1. GNOME中 GTK+ 工具
13.6.2. KDE上的 Qt 工具
13.7. 通力合作
13.7.1. 团队合作:groupware
13.7.2. 使用 FusionForge 协同工作
13.8. 办公套件
13.9. 模拟 Windows:Wine
13.10. Real-Time Communications software
现在服务器已经部署完毕,管理员可以集中精力单独安装并配置典型工作站了。

13.1. 配置 X11 服务

初次配置图形介面可能不太顺利,新上市的显卡通常不能被 Debian 稳定版中附带的 X.org 完美支持。
A brief reminder: X.org is the software component that allows graphical applications to display windows on screen. It includes a driver that makes efficient use of the video card. The features offered to the graphical applications are exported through a standard interface, X11 (Jessie contains its X11R7.7 version).
Current versions of X.org are able to autodetect the available hardware: this applies to the video card and the monitor, as well as keyboards and mice; in fact, it is so convenient that the package no longer even creates a /etc/X11/xorg.conf configuration file. This is all made possible by features provided by the Linux kernel (in particular for keyboards and mice), by having each driver list the video cards it supports, and by using the DDC protocol to fetch monitor characteristics.
The keyboard configuration is currently set up in /etc/default/keyboard. This file is used both to configure the text console and the graphical interface, and it is handled by the keyboard-configuration package. Details on configuring the keyboard layout are available in 第 8.1.2 节 “键盘配置”.
xserver-xorg-core 软件包提供X.org 7.x系列的通用X 服务。该服务是模块化的并使用一套相互独立的驱动来处理很多不同类型的显卡。安装 xserver-xorg 确保服务和至少一种显卡驱动被安装。
Note that if the detected video card is not handled by any of the available drivers, X.org tries using the VESA and fbdev drivers. The former is a generic driver that should work everywhere, but with limited capabilities (fewer available resolutions, no hardware acceleration for games and visual effects for the desktop, and so on) while the latter works on top of the kernel's framebuffer device. The X server writes its messages to the /var/log/Xorg.0.log log file, which is where one would look to know what driver is currently in use. For example, the following snippet matches what the intel driver outputs when it is loaded:
(==) Matched intel as autoconfigured driver 0
(==) Matched modesetting as autoconfigured driver 1
(==) Matched vesa as autoconfigured driver 2
(==) Matched fbdev as autoconfigured driver 3
(==) Assigned the driver to the xf86ConfigLayout
(II) LoadModule: "intel"
(II) Loading /usr/lib/xorg/modules/drivers/intel_drv.so