Глава 2. Что нового в Debian 11

Содержание

2.1. Поддерживаемые архитектуры
2.2. Что нового в дистрибутиве?
2.2.1. Desktops and well known packages
2.2.2. Driverless scanning and printing
2.2.3. New generic open command
2.2.4. Control groups v2
2.2.5. Persistent systemd journal
2.2.6. New Fcitx 5 Input Method
2.2.7. Новости Debian Med
2.2.8. Kernel support for exFAT
2.2.9. Improved man page translations

The Wiki has more information about this topic.

2.1. Поддерживаемые архитектуры

Список официально поддерживаемых архитектур для Debian 11:

  • 32-битный ПК (i386) и 64-битный ПК (amd64)

  • 64-битный ARM (arm64)

  • ARM EABI (armel)

  • ARMv7 (EABI hard-float ABI, armhf)

  • little-endian MIPS (mipsel)

  • 64-битный MIPS с порядком байтов от младшего к старшему (mips64el)

  • 64-битный PowerPC с порядком байтов от младшего к старшему (ppc64el)

  • IBM System z (s390x)

Более подробную информацию о переносе на различные архитектуры и сведения, относящиеся к конкретным переносам, вы можете получить на странице переносов Debian.

2.2. Что нового в дистрибутиве?

Новый выпуск Debian опять содержит намного больше программ, чем его предшественник, buster. Дистрибутив включает в себя более 13370 новых пакетов, всего их стало более 57703. Большая часть программ, входящих в дистрибутив, была обновлена: более 35532 пакетов (что составляет 62% дистрибутива buster). Также, по различным причинам многие пакеты (более 7278, 13% дистрибутива buster) были удалены из дистрибутива. Эти пакеты не будут обновляться, в инструментах управления пакетами они будут помечены как "устаревшие" (obsolete), см. Раздел 4.8, «Устаревшие пакеты».

2.2.1. Desktops and well known packages

Debian again ships with several desktop applications and environments. Among others it now includes the desktop environments GNOME 3.38, KDE Plasma 5.20, LXDE 11, LXQt 0.16, MATE 1.24, and Xfce 4.16.

Также были обновлены офисные приложения, включая следующие комплекты:

  • LibreOffice is upgraded to version 7.0;

  • Calligra is upgraded to 3.2.

  • GNUcash is upgraded to 4.4;

В этом выпуске, среди прочего, было обновлено следующее программное обеспечение:

ПакетВерсия в 10 (buster)Версия в 11 (bullseye)
Apache2.4.382.4.46
BIND DNS сервер9.119.16
Cryptsetup2.12.3
Dovecot MTA2.3.42.3.13
Emacs26.127.1
Exim, почтовый сервер по умолчанию4.924.94
GNU Compiler Collection, компилятор по умолчанию8.310.2
GIMP2.10.82.10.22
GnuPG2.2.122.2.20
Inkscape0.92.41.0.2
GNU библиотека C2.282.31
lighttpd1.4.531.4.58
Образ ядра Linux4.19 series5.10 series
LLVM/Clang toolchain6.0.1 and 7.0.1 (default)9.0.1 and 11.0.1 (default)
MariaDB10.310.5
Nginx1.141.18
OpenJDK1111
OpenSSH7.9p18.4p1
Perl5.285.32
PHP7.37.4
Postfix MTA3.43.5
PostgreSQL1113
Python 33.7.33.9.1
Rustc1.41 (1.34 for armel)1.48
Samba4.94.13
Vim8.18.2

2.2.2. Driverless scanning and printing

Both printing with CUPS and scanning with SANE are increasingly likely to be possible without the need for any driver (often non-free) specific to the model of the hardware, especially in the case of devices marketed in the past five years or so.

2.2.2.1. CUPS and driverless printing

Modern printers connected by ethernet or wireless can already use driverless printing, implemented via CUPS and cups-filters, as was described in the Release Notes for buster. Debian 11 «bullseye» brings the new package ipp-usb, which is recommended by cups-daemon and uses the vendor-neutral IPP-over-USB protocol supported by many modern printers. This allows a USB device to be treated as a network device, extending driverless printing to include USB-connected printers. The specifics are outlined on the wiki.

The systemd service file included in the ipp-usb package starts the ipp-usb daemon when a USB-connected printer is plugged in, thus making it available to print to. By default cups-browsed should configure it automatically, or it can be manually set up with a local driverless print queue.

2.2.2.2. SANE and driverless scanning

The official SANE driverless backend is provided by sane-escl in libsane1. An independently developed driverless backend is sane-airscan. Both backends understand the eSCL protocol but sane-airscan can also use the WSD protocol. Users should consider having both backends on their systems.

eSCL and WSD are network protocols. Consequently they will operate over a USB connection if the device is an IPP-over-USB device (see above). Note that libsane1 has ipp-usb as a recommended package. This leads to a suitable device being automatically set up to use a driverless backend driver when it is connected to a USB port.

2.2.3. New generic open command

A new open command is available as a convenience alias to xdg-open (by default) or run-mailcap, managed by the update-alternatives(1) system. It is intended for interactive use at the command line, to open files with their default application, which can be a graphical program when available.

2.2.4. Control groups v2

In bullseye, systemd defaults to using control groups v2 (cgroupv2), which provides a unified resource-control hierarchy. Kernel commandline parameters are available to re-enable the legacy cgroups if necessary; see the notes for OpenStack in Раздел 5.1.8, «OpenStack and cgroups v1» section.

2.2.5. Persistent systemd journal

Systemd in bullseye activates its persistent journal functionality by default, storing its files in /var/log/journal/. See systemd-journald.service(8) for details; note that on Debian the journal is readable for members of adm, in addition to the default systemd-journal group.

This should not interfere with any existing traditional logging daemon such as rsyslog, but users who are not relying on special features of such a daemon may wish to uninstall it and switch over to using only the journal.

2.2.6. New Fcitx 5 Input Method

Fcitx 5 is an input method for Chinese, Japanese, Korean and many other languages. It is the successor of the popular Fcitx 4 in buster. The new version supports Wayland and has better addon support. More information including the migration guide can be found on the wiki.

2.2.7. Новости Debian Med

The Debian Med team has been taking part in the fight against COVID-19 by packaging software for researching the virus on the sequence level and for fighting the pandemic with the tools used in epidemiology. The effort will be continued in the next release cycle with focus on machine learning tools that are used in both fields.

Besides the addition of new packages in the field of life sciences and medicine, more and more existing packages have gained Continuous Integration support.

A range of performance critical applications now benefit from SIMD Everywhere. This library allows packages to be available on more hardware platforms supported by Debian (notably on arm64) while maintaining the performance benefit brought by processors supporting vector extensions, such as AVX on amd64, or NEON on arm64.

To install packages maintained by the Debian Med team, install the metapackages named med-*, which are at version 3.6.x for Debian bullseye. Feel free to visit the Debian Med tasks pages to see the full range of biological and medical software available in Debian.

2.2.8. Kernel support for exFAT

bullseye is the first release providing a Linux kernel which has support for the exFAT filesystem, and defaults to using it for mounting exFAT filesystems. Consequently it's no longer required to use the filesystem-in-userspace implementation provided via the exfat-fuse package. If you would like to continue to use the filesystem-in-userspace implementation, you need to invoke the mount.exfat-fuse helper directly when mounting an exFAT filesystem.

Tools for creating and checking an exFAT filesystem are provided in the exfatprogs package by the authors of the Linux kernel exFAT implementation. The independent implementation of those tools provided via the existing exfat-utils package is still available, but cannot be co-installed with the new implementation. It's recommended to migrate to the exfatprogs package, though you must take care of command options, which are most likely incompatible.

2.2.9. Improved man page translations

The manual pages for several projects such as systemd, util-linux, OpenSSH, and Mutt in a number of languages, including French, Spanish, and Macedonian, have been substantially improved. To benefit from this, please install manpages-xx (where xx is the code for your preferred natural language).

During the lifetime of the bullseye release, backports of further translation improvements will be provided via the backports archive.