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Bab 13. Workstation

13.1. Menata Server X11
13.2. Mengubahsuai Antar Muka Grafis
13.2.1. Memilih suatu Manajer Tampilan
13.2.2. Memilih suatu Manajer Jendela
13.2.3. Manajemen Menu
13.3. Desktop Grafis
13.3.1. GNOME
13.3.2. KDE and Plasma
13.3.3. Xfce dan Lainnya
13.3.4. Other Desktop Environments
13.4. Surel
13.4.1. Evolution
13.4.2. KMail
13.4.3. Thunderbird
13.5. Peramban Web
13.6. Pengembangan
13.6.1. Perkakas untuk GTK+ pada GNOME
13.6.2. Tools for Qt
13.7. Kerja Kolaborasi
13.7.1. Bekerja dalam Grup: groupware
13.7.2. Kolaborasi dengan FusionForge
13.8. Keluarga Aplikasi Perkantoran
13.9. Mengemulasi Windows: Wine
13.10. Perangkat lunak Komunikasi Real-Time
Sekarang penyebaran server telah selesai, administrator dapat fokus pada instalasi workstation secara individu dan membuat konfigurasi yang khas.

13.1. Menata Server X11

A brief reminder: X.org is the software component that allows graphical applications to display windows on screen. It includes a driver that makes efficient use of the video card. The features offered to the graphical applications are exported through a standard interface, X11 (Buster contains version X11R7.7).
Current versions of X.org are able to autodetect the available hardware: this applies to the video card and the monitor, as well as keyboards and mice; in fact, it is so convenient that the package no longer even creates a /etc/X11/xorg.conf configuration file.
Konfigurasi keyboard telah diatur di /etc/default/keyboard. Berkas ini digunakan dengan baik untuk mengkonfigurasi konsol teks dan antarmuka grafis, dan ditangani oleh paket keyboard-configuration. Rincian konfigurasi keyboard layout tersedia di Bagian 8.1.2, “Mengatur Papan ketik”.
Paket xserver-xorg-core menyediakan X server umum , seperti yang digunakan oleh versi 7.x X.org. Server ini bersifat modular dan menggunakan satu set independen driver untuk menangani banyak jenis kartu video. Menginstal xserver-xorg akan memastikan bahwa server dan setidaknya satu driver video telah diinstal.
Note that if the detected video card is not handled by any of the available drivers, X.org tries using the vesa and fbdev drivers. VESA is a generic driver that should work everywhere, but with limited capabilities (fewer available resolutions, no hardware acceleration for games and visual effects for the desktop, and so on) while fbdev works on top of the kernel's framebuffer device. Nowadays the X server can run without any administrative privileges (this used to be required to be able to configure the screen) and its log file is then stored in the user's home directory in ~/.local/share/xorg/Xorg.0.log, whereas it is /var/log/Xorg.0.log for X servers started with root privileges and for versions older than Debian 9 Stetch. That log file is where one would look to know what driver is currently in use. For example, the following snippet matches what the intel driver outputs when it is loaded:
(==) Matched intel as autoconfigured driver 0
(==) Matched modesetting as autoconfigured driver 1
(==) Matched vesa as autoconfigured driver 2
(==) Matched fbdev as autoconfigured driver 3
(==) Assigned the driver to the xf86ConfigLayout
(II) LoadModule: "intel"
(II) Loading /usr/lib/xorg/modules/drivers/intel_drv.so