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第 13 章 工作站

13.1. 配置 X11 服务
13.2. 定制图形界面
13.2.1. 选择显示管理器
13.2.2. 选择窗口管理器
13.2.3. 菜单管理
13.3. 图形桌面
13.3.1. GNOME
13.3.2. KDE 和 Plasma
13.3.3. Xfce 和其他
13.3.4. 其他桌面环境
13.4. 邮件
13.4.1. Evolution
13.4.2. KMail
13.4.3. Thunderbird
13.5. 网页浏览器
13.6. 开发
13.6.1. GNOME中 GTK+ 工具
13.6.2. Qt 工具
13.7. 办公软件包
13.8. 模拟 Windows:Wine
13.9. 即时通讯软件

13.1. 配置 X11 服务

A brief reminder: is the software component that allows graphical applications to display windows on screen. It includes a driver that makes efficient use of the video card. The features offered to the graphical applications are exported through a standard interface, X11 (Bullseye contains version X11R7.7).
Current versions of are able to auto-detect the available hardware: this applies to the video card and the monitor, as well as keyboards and mice; in fact, it is so convenient that the package no longer even creates a /etc/X11/xorg.conf configuration file.
键盘的配置保存在 /etc/default/keyboard。该文件用于配置文本控制台也用于图形界面,由keyboard-configuration 处理。配置键盘布局的细节在第 8.1.2 节 “键盘配置”中。
xserver-xorg-core 软件包提供 7.x系列的通用X 服务。该服务是模块化的并使用一套相互独立的驱动来处理很多不同类型的显卡。安装 xserver-xorg 确保服务和至少一种显卡驱动被安装。
Note that if the detected video card is not handled by any of the available drivers, tries using the vesa and fbdev drivers. VESA is a generic driver that should work everywhere, but with limited capabilities (fewer available resolutions, no hardware acceleration for games and visual effects for the desktop, and so on) while fbdev works on top of the kernel's framebuffer device. Nowadays the X server can run without any administrative privileges (this used to be required to be able to configure the screen) and its log file is then stored in the user's home directory in ~/.local/share/xorg/Xorg.0.log, whereas it is /var/log/Xorg.0.log for X servers started with root privileges and for versions older than Debian 9 Stretch. That log file is where one would look to know what driver is currently in use. For example, the following snippet matches what the intel driver outputs when it is loaded:
(==) Matched nouveau as autoconfigured driver 0
(==) Matched modesetting as autoconfigured driver 1
(==) Matched fbdev as autoconfigured driver 2
(==) Matched vesa as autoconfigured driver 3
(==) Assigned the driver to the xf86ConfigLayout
(II) LoadModule: "intel"
(II) Loading /usr/lib/xorg/modules/drivers/
(II) Module intel: vendor="X.Org Foundation"