Kapitel 3. Werkzeugeinrichtung

Inhaltsverzeichnis

3.1. E-Mail-Adresse
3.2. MC
3.3. Git
3.4. Quilt
3.5. Devscripts
3.6. Pbuilder
3.7. git-buildpackage
3.8. HTTP-Proxy
3.9. Privates Debian-Depot

Das Paket build-essential muss in Ihrer Bauumgebung installiert sein.

The devscripts package should be installed in the maintainer environment.

Although this is not necessarily an absolute requirement, it is a good idea to install and set up all of the popular set of packages mentioned in this chapter in the maintainer environment. This enables us to share the common baseline working environment.

Bitte installieren Sie auch die benötigten Werkzeuge, die in der »Debian Developer’s Reference« erwähnt werden.

[Achtung] Achtung

Tool setups presented here are only meant as an example and may not be up-to-date with the latest packages on the system. Debian development is a moving target. Please make sure to read the pertinent documentation and update the configuration as needed.

Verschiedene Debian-Betreuungswerkzeuge erkennen Ihre zu verwendene E-Mail-Adresse und Ihren Namen über die Shell-Umgebungsvariablen $DEBEMAIL und $DEBFULLNAME.

Richten Sie diese Pakete ein, indem Sie die nachfolgenen Zeilen zu ~/.bashrc hinzufügen [6].

Add to the ~/.bashrc file. 

DEBEMAIL="your.email.address@example.org"
DEBFULLNAME="Firstname Lastname"
export DEBEMAIL DEBFULLNAME

The mc command offers very easy ways to manage files. It can open the binary deb file to check its content by pressing the Enter key over the binary deb file. It uses the dpkg-deb command as its back-end. Let’s set it up to support easy chdir as follows.

Add to the ~/.bashrc file. 

# mc related
export HISTCONTROL=ignoreboth
. /usr/lib/mc/mc.sh

Heutzutage ist der Befehl git ein unverzichtbares Werkzeug, um den Quellbau mit Verlauf zu verwalten.

Die globale Benutzerkonfiguration für den Befehl git, wie Ihren Namen und Ihre E-Mail-Adresse, können in ~/.gitconfig wie folgt gesetzt werden:

$ git config --global user.name "Name Surname"
$ git config --global user.email yourname@example.com

Falls Sie an die CVS- oder Subversion-Befehle gewöhnt sind, möchten Sie vielleicht eine Reihe von Aliasen wie folgt setzen:

$ git config --global alias.ci "commit -a"
$ git config --global alias.co checkout

Sie können Ihre globale Konfiguration wie folgt prüfen:

$ git config --global --list
[Tipp] Tipp

It is essential to use some GUI git tools like gitk or gitg to work effectively with the history of the git repository.

The quilt command offers a basic method for recording modifications. For the Debian packaging, it should be customized to record modifications in the debian/patches/ directory instead of its default patches/ directory.

In order to avoid changing the behavior of the quilt command itself, let’s create an alias dquilt for the Debian packaging by adding the following lines to the ~/.bashrc file. The second line provides the same shell completion feature of the quilt command to the dquilt command.

Add to the ~/.bashrc file. 

alias dquilt="quilt --quiltrc=${HOME}/.quiltrc-dpkg"
complete -F _quilt_completion $_quilt_complete_opt dquilt

Then let’s create ~/.quiltrc-dpkg as follows.

d=.
while [ ! -d $d/debian -a `readlink -e $d` != / ];
    do d=$d/..; done
if [ -d $d/debian ] && [ -z $QUILT_PATCHES ]; then
    # if in Debian packaging tree with unset $QUILT_PATCHES
    QUILT_PATCHES="debian/patches"
    QUILT_PATCH_OPTS="--reject-format=unified"
    QUILT_DIFF_ARGS="-p ab --no-timestamps --no-index --color=auto"
    QUILT_REFRESH_ARGS="-p ab --no-timestamps --no-index"
    QUILT_COLORS="diff_hdr=1;32:diff_add=1;34:" + \
            "diff_rem=1;31:diff_hunk=1;33:diff_ctx=35:diff_cctx=33"
    if ! [ -d $d/debian/patches ]; then mkdir $d/debian/patches; fi
fi

See quilt(1) and How To Survive With Many Patches or Introduction to Quilt on how to use the quilt command.

Siehe Abschnitt 4.8, „Schritt 3 (alternativ): Änderungen der Quellen der Originalautoren“ für beispielhafte Verwendungen.

The debsign command, included in the devscripts package, is used to sign the Debian package with your private GPG key.

The debuild command, included in the devscripts package, builds the binary package and checks it with the lintian command. It is useful to have verbose outputs from the lintian command.

You can set these up in ~/.devscripts as follows.

DEBUILD_DPKG_BUILDPACKAGE_OPTS="-i -I -us -uc"
DEBUILD_LINTIAN_OPTS="-i -I --show-overrides"
DEBSIGN_KEYID="Your_GPG_keyID"

The -i and -I options in DEBUILD_DPKG_BUILDPACKAGE_OPTS for the dpkg-source command help rebuilding of Debian packages without extraneous contents (see Abschnitt 5.15, „Pakete ohne irrelevante Inhalte bauen“).

Derzeit ist ein RSA-Schlüssel mit 4096 Bits eine gute Idee. Siehe Creating a new GPG key.

The pbuilder package provides a clean room (chroot) build environment. [7]

Let’s customize it with several helper packages.

  • The cowbuilder package to boost the chroot creation speed.
  • The lintian package to find bugs in the package.
  • The bash, mc, and vim packages in case build fails.
  • The ccache package to boost the gcc speed. (optional)
  • The libeatmydata1 package to boost the dpkg speed. (optional)
  • The parallel make to boost the build speed. (optional)
[Warnung] Warnung

The optional customization may cause negative effects. In case of doubts, disable them.

Let’s create ~/.pbuilderrc as follows (all optional features are disabled).

AUTO_DEBSIGN="${AUTO_DEBSIGN:-no}"
PDEBUILD_PBUILDER=cowbuilder
HOOKDIR="/var/cache/pbuilder/hooks"
MIRRORSITE="http://deb.debian.org/debian/"
#APTCACHE=/var/cache/pbuilder/aptcache
APTCACHE=/var/cache/apt/archives
#BUILDRESULT=/var/cache/pbuilder/result/
BUILDRESULT=../
EXTRAPACKAGES="ccache lintian libeatmydata1"

# enable to use libeatmydata1 for pbuilder
#export LD_PRELOAD=${LD_PRELOAD+$LD_PRELOAD:}libeatmydata.so

# enable ccache for pbuilder
#export PATH="/usr/lib/ccache${PATH+:$PATH}"
#export CCACHE_DIR="/var/cache/pbuilder/ccache"
#BINDMOUNTS="${CCACHE_DIR}"

# parallel make
#DEBBUILDOPTS=-j8
[Anmerkung] Anmerkung

A symlink from /root/.pbuilderrc to /home/<user>/.pbuilderrc may help for the consistent experience.

[Anmerkung] Anmerkung

Due to Bug #606542, you may need to manually install packages listed in EXTRAPACKAGES into the chroot. See Abschnitt 7.10, „chroot“.

[Anmerkung] Anmerkung

Install libeatmydata1 (>=82-2) both inside and outside of the chroot or disable to use libeatmydata1. This may cause a race condition with some build systems.

[Anmerkung] Anmerkung

The parallel make may fail for some existing packages and may make the build log difficult to read.

Let’s create a hook scripts as follows.

/var/cache/pbuilder/hooks/A10ccache

#!/bin/sh
set -e
# increase the ccache caching size
ccache -M 4G
# output the current statistics
ccache -s

/var/cache/pbuilder/hooks/B90lintian

#!/bin/sh
set -e
apt-get -y --allow-downgrades install lintian
echo "+++ lintian output +++"
su -c "lintian -i -I --show-overrides /tmp/buildd/*.changes; :" -l pbuilder
echo "+++ end of lintian output +++"

/var/cache/pbuilder/hooks/C10shell

#!/bin/sh
set -e
apt-get -y --allow-downgrades install vim bash mc
# invoke shell if build fails
cd /tmp/buildd/*/debian/..
/bin/bash < /dev/tty > /dev/tty 2> /dev/tty
[Anmerkung] Anmerkung

All these scripts need to be set world executable: “-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root”.

[Anmerkung] Anmerkung

The ccache cache directory /var/cache/pbuilder/ccache needs to be set world writable: “-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root” for the pbuilder command. You should be aware of associated security concerns.

Es kann sinnvoll sein, dass Sie mehrere globale Konfigurationen in ~/.gbp.conf setzen.

# Configuration file for "gbp <command>"

[DEFAULT]
# the default build command:
builder = git-pbuilder -i -I -us -uc
# use pristine-tar:
pristine-tar = True
# Use color when on a terminal, alternatives: on/true, off/false or auto
color = auto
[Tipp] Tipp

Der Befehl gbp ist ein Alias für den Befehl git-buildpackage.

You should set up a local HTTP caching proxy to save the bandwidth for the Debian package repository access. There are several choices:

  • Simple HTTP caching proxy using the squid package.
  • Specialized HTTP caching proxy using the apt-cacher-ng package.

Sie können ein privates Debian-Depot mit dem Paket reprepro einrichten.



[6] Hierbei wird angenommen, dass Sie die Bash als Ihre Anmelde-Shell verwenden. Falls Sie eine andere Anmelde-Shell, wie die Z-Shell, verwenden, verwenden Sie deren entsprechenden Konfigurationsdateien statt ~/.bashrc.

[7] The sbuild package provides an alternative chroot platform.