Development of the Distribution
Porting Debian Packages
If you want to help the Debian GNU/Hurd port, you should make yourself familiar with the Debian packaging system. Once you have done this by reading the available documentation and visiting the Developer's Corner you should know how to extract Debian source packages and build a Debian package. Here is a crash course for the very lazy people:
Obtaining Source and Building Packages
Obtaining Source code can be done by simply running
package, which will also extract the source.
Extracting a Debian source package requires the file
package_version.dsc and the files listed in it. You build the
Debian build directory with the command
dpkg-source -x package_version.dsc
Building a package is done in the now existing Debian build directory
package-version with the command
dpkg-buildpackage -B "-mMyName <MyEmail>".
-B you can use
-b if you also want to build the architecture independent
parts of the package. You can add
-uc to avoid signing the package with your pgp key.
Building may needed additional installed packages. The simplest way it to run
apt build-dep package which will install all required packages.
Using pbuilder can be convenient. It can be built with
sudo pbuilder create --mirror http://deb.debian.org/debian-ports/ --debootstrapopts --keyring=/usr/share/keyrings/debian-ports-archive-keyring.gpg --debootstrapopts --extra-suites=unreleased --extrapackages debian-ports-archive-keyring
and then one can use
pdebuild -- --binary-arch which will handle downloading build dependencies, etc, and put the result in
Which package needs to be worked on? Well, every package that is not yet ported, but needs to be ported. This changes constantly, so it's preferred to concentrate first on packages with a lot of reverse dependencies, which can be seen in the package dependency graph https://people.debian.org/~sthibault/graph-radial.pdf updated every day, or on the most-wanted list https://people.debian.org/~sthibault/graph-total-top.txt (this is long-term wanted, the short-term wanted is https://people.debian.org/~sthibault/graph-top.txt). It is also usually a good idea to pick from the out of date lists https://people.debian.org/~sthibault/out_of_date2.txt and https://people.debian.org/~sthibault/out_of_date.txt, as these used to be working, and are now broken probably only for just a couple of reasons. You can also just pick one of the missing packages at random, or watch out for autobuilding logs on the debian-hurd-build-logs mailing list, or use the wanna-build list from https://people.debian.org/~sthibault/failed_packages.txt . Some build issues are easier to fix than the others. Typically, "undefined reference to foo", where foo is something like pthread_create, dlopen, cos, ... (which are obviously available on hurd-i386), which just shows that the configure step of the package forgot to include -lpthread, -ldl, -lm, etc. on the Hurd too. Note however that ALSA MIDI functions are not available.
Also, check whether work has already been done on https://alioth.debian.org/tracker/?atid=410472&group_id=30628&func=browse, https://alioth.debian.org/tracker/?atid=411594&group_id=30628&func=browse, and the BTS (https://firstname.lastname@example.org;tag=hurd), and https://wiki.debian.org/Debian_GNU/Hurd, and the live state of packages on buildd.debian.org, e.g. https://buildd.debian.org/util-linux.
Packages That Won't Be Ported
Some of these packages, or parts of them, might be portable later, but currently they are considered to be unportable at least. They are normally marked as NotForUs in the buildd database.
base/makedev, because the Hurd comes with its own version of this script. The Debian source package only contains a Linux specific version.
base/modutils, because modules are a concept specific to Linux.
base/netbase, because the remaining stuff that is there is highly specific to the Linux kernel. The Hurd uses
base/pcmcia-cs, because this package is Linux specific.
base/setserial, because it is specific to the Linux kernel. However, with the port of Linux char drivers to GNU Mach, we might be able to use it.
A list of common issues is available on the upstream website. The following common issues are specific to Debian.
Before attempting to fix something, check whether the kfreebsd* port maybe has some fix already, which just needs to be extended to hurd-i386.
Broken libc6 dependency
Some packages use an erroneous dependency on
libc6-dev. This is incorrect because
libc6is specific to some architectures of GNU/Linux. The corresponding package for GNU is
libc0.3-devbut other OSes will have different ones. You can locate the problem in the
debian/controlfile of the source tree. Typical solutions include detecting the OS using
dpkg-architectureand hardcoding the soname, or better, use a logical OR. eg:
libc6-dev | libc6.1-dev | libc0.3-dev | libc0.1-dev | libc-dev. The
libc-devis a virtual package that works for any soname but you have to put it only as the last option.
undefined reference to snd_*, SND_* undeclared
Some packages use ALSA even on non-Linux architectures. The oss-libsalsa package provides some emulation over OSS, but it is limited to 1.0.5, and some features are not provided, such as all sequencer operations.
If the package permits it, alsa support should be disabled on the
!linux-anyarchs (e.g. through a
configureoption), and a
[linux-any]qualifier added to the alsa
Build-Depends, and the converse added to
Build-Conflicts, such as
Build-Conflicts: libasound2-dev [!linux-any].
dh_install: Cannot find (any matches for) "foo" (tried in ., debian/tmp)
That typically happens when upstream didn't install something because it didn't recognize the OS. Sometimes it's just dumb (e.g. it doesn't know that building a shared library on GNU/Hurd is exactly like on GNU/Linux) and that needs fixing. Sometimes it actually makes sense (e.g. not installing systemd service files). In that case, one can use dh-exec: build depend on dh-exec, chmod +x the .install file, and prepend the problematic lines with e.g. [linux-any] or [!hurd-any].
To build an ISO image, the simplest is to start from an existing one from the Hurd CD images page. You can then mount it and copy it:
mount debian-sid-hurd-i386-NETINST-1.iso /mnt cp -a /mnt /tmp/myimage umount /mnt chmod -R +w /tmp/myimage
You can mount the initial ram disk, and e.g. replace a translator with your own version:
gunzip /tmp/myimage/initrd.gz mount /tmp/myimage/initrd /mnt cp ~/hurd/rumpdisk/rumpdisk /mnt/hurd/ umount /mnt gzip /tmp/myimage/initrd
Now you can rebuild the iso with grub-mkrescue:
rm -fr /tmp/myimage/boot/grub/i386-pc grub-mkrescue -o /tmp/myimage.iso /tmp/myimage